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Independent Belgium Episode of the Belgian Revolution ofby Gustaf Wappers Inthe Belgian Revolution led to the separation of the Southern Provinces from the Netherlands and to the establishment of a Catholic and bourgeois, officially French-speaking and neutral, independent Belgium under a provisional government and a national congress.
The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party and the Liberal Partywith the Belgian Labour Party emerging towards the end of the 19th century.
French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie. It progressively lost its overall importance as Dutch became recognized as well.
This recognition became official in and in the parliament accepted a Dutch version of the Constitution. Inthis outcry led the Belgian state to assume responsibility for the government of the colony, henceforth called the Belgian Congo.
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The opening months of the war were known as the Rape of Belgium due to German excesses. Belgium assumed control of the German colonies of Ruanda-Urundi modern-day Rwanda and Burundi during the war, and in the League of Nations mandated them to Belgium.
In the aftermath of the First World War, Belgium annexed the Prussian districts of Eupen and Malmedy inthereby causing the presence of a German-speaking minority. Cheering crowds greet British troops entering Brussels, 4 September German forces again invaded the country in Mayand 40, Belgians, over half of them Jews, were killed during the subsequent occupation and The Holocaust.
From September to February the Allies liberated Belgium. The latter has now become the European Union, for which Belgium hosts major administrations and institutions, including the European Commissionthe Council of the European Union and the extraordinary and committee sessions of the European Parliament.
Belgium has three main geographical regions; the coastal plain in the northwest and the central plateau both belong to the Anglo-Belgian Basin, and the Ardennes uplands in the southeast to the Hercynian orogenic belt. Jewish troops were among the Syrian soldiers transferred there, and replenished from the Middle East, after CE Jews and especially Syrians came from AntiochTarsus and Cappadocia. Others came from Italy and the Hellenized parts of the Roman Empire.
The excavations suggest they first lived in isolated enclaves attached to Roman legion camps and intermarried with other similar oriental families within the military orders of the region. In Gaul and Germany itself, with the possible exception of Trier and Colognethe archeological evidence suggests at most a fleeting presence of very few Jews, primarily itinerant traders or artisans.
The number of Jews in the Roman Empire for a long time was based on the accounts of Syrian Orthodox bishop Bar Hebraeus who lived between and CE, who stated by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, as many as six million Jews were already living in the Roman Empire, a conclusion which has been contested as highly exaggerated. The 13th-century author Bar Hebraeus gave a figure of 6, Jews in the Roman world. Salo Wittmayer Baron considered the figure convincing.
However, contemporary scholars now accept that Bar Hebraeus based his figure on a census of total Roman citizens and thus included non-Jews, the figure of 6, being recorded in Eusebius' Chronicon. Bartlett rejects Baron's figures entirely, arguing that we have no clue as to the size of the Jewish demographic in the ancient world.
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They collected an annual temple tax from Jews both in and outside of Israel. The revolts in and suppression of diaspora communities in Egypt, Libya and Crete in — CE had a severe impact on the Jewish diaspora. Jews in former Roman territories faced new challenges as harsher anti-Jewish church rulings were enforced. Charlemagne 's expansion of the Frankish empire aroundincluding northern Italy and Rome, brought on a brief period of stability and unity in Francia.
This created opportunities for Jewish merchants to settle again north of the Alps.
Charlemagne granted the Jews freedoms similar to those once enjoyed under the Roman Empire. In addition, Jews from southern Italy, fleeing religious persecution, began to move into central Europe.
Church legislation banned Christians from lending money in exchange for interest. From Charlemagne's time to the present, Jewish life in northern Europe is well documented.
By the 11th century, when Rashi of Troyes wrote his commentaries, Jews in what came to be known as "Ashkenaz" were known for their halakhic learningand Talmudic studies. They were criticized by Sephardim and other Jewish scholars in Islamic lands for their lack of expertise in Jewish jurisprudence dinim and general ignorance of Hebrew linguistics and literature. By the 11th century Jewish settlers, moving from southern European and Middle Eastern centers, appear to have begun to settle in the north, especially along the Rhine, often in response to new economic opportunities and at the invitation of local Christian rulers.
Thus Baldwin V, Count of Flandersinvited Jacob ben Yekutiel and his fellow Jews to settle in his lands; and soon after the Norman conquest of EnglandWilliam the Conqueror likewise extended a welcome to continental Jews to take up residence there.How It Feels Being Black in Belgium
In all of these decisions, the idea that Jews had the know-how and capacity to jump-start the economy, improve revenues, and enlarge trade seems to have played a prominent role. The cluster of cities contain the earliest Jewish settlements north of the Alps, and played a major role in the formation of Ashkenazi Jewish religious tradition,  along with Troyes and Sens in France.
Over this period of several hundred years, some have suggested, Jewish economic activity was focused on trade, business management, and financial services, due to several presumed factors: Christian European prohibitions restricting certain activities by Jews, preventing certain financial activities such as " usurious " loans  between Christians, high rates of literacy, near universal male education, and ability of merchants to rely upon and trust family members living in different regions and countries.
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The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent. By the 15th century, the Ashkenazi Jewish communities in Poland were the largest Jewish communities of the Diaspora. The answer to why there was so little assimilation of Jews in central and eastern Europe for so long would seem to lie in part in the probability that the alien surroundings in central and eastern Europe were not conducive, though there was some assimilation.
Furthermore, Jews lived almost exclusively in shtetlsmaintained a strong system of education for males, heeded rabbinic leadership, and had a very different lifestyle to that of their neighbours; and all of these tendencies increased with every outbreak of antisemitism. In the first half of the 11th century, Hai Gaon refers to questions that had been addressed to him from Ashkenaz, by which he undoubtedly means Germany.
Rashi in the latter half of the 11th century refers to both the language of Ashkenaz  and the country of Ashkenaz.
In the Mahzor Vitrythe kingdom of Ashkenaz is referred to chiefly in regard to the ritual of the synagogue there, but occasionally also with regard to certain other observances.