The differences between Latin American Spanish and Spanish in Spain - ESL language studies abroad
Without place or date (Col., U. Zell), 4°. Gothic letter, 32 See also NIzoLIUs and H. STEPHANUs. —Oraciones escogidas de Cicerom en latin y castellano. Online Publication Date: Apr Castellano, Español, or Españoles? Spanish In Latin America, people don't distinguish between castellano and español. Join Date: Feb I've made good progress learning 'Latin American Spanish' and I have to say I have no problems at if I stopped taking those 'Latin American Spanish' lessons and began to start learning Castellano?.
Spanish was an agglutinating force toward a new collective identity, regionally and locally. Simultaneously, each nation developed its own idiosyncratic media, which, again, allowed for verbal peculiarities to be included while also driving toward a standardized form.
In this atmosphere, the Spanish language has been used as an organ of control by the state. It is also an invaluable tool through which to understand regional, national, and cultural differences.
Jaime Castellano - Learning Sciences International
By the end of the millennium, a new phenomenon emerged, not in Latin America per se yet intimately linked to it: It is a hybrid tongue used by millions of immigrants in the United States, whose power is increasing as time goes by.
Spanglish has the potential of reconfiguring the way the Spanish language is understood in the future. Spanish is spoken today as a native language by almost half a billion people. The vast majority of them are in Latin America, including the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. The foundation for the formidable presence Spanish in the region is traceable to the period of colonization, a time in which the language, having been brought in from the Iberian Peninsula by soldiers, conquistadors, missionaries, and entrepreneurs representing the Spanish Crown, took hold across all elements of society within a relatively short period of time.
Indigenous tongues struggled to survive under the implacable presence of an imperial mandate intent on making all subjects part of the empire.
As colonization came to a close and during the age of independence —a succession of republics in the Americas declared their autonomy by pushing for a nationalist agenda. Spanish was an essential agglutinating force in the shaping of these national identities. Before proceeding with an exploration of the linguistic development of Spanish in the Americas, it is crucial to fine-tune an issue of nomenclature.
In the vernacular, Spanish is often called by two names: The former recognizes its origin, around the yearas a regional language in Castile, in central Spain. Although these terms are seen as synonymous nowadays, it is historically appropriate to choose the latter when discussing the vicissitudes of the language in the Spanish colonies across the Atlantic. The spirit of freedom gave place to insurrections in Latin America starting at the end of the 18th century. The first country to achieve independence was Mexico.
As such, it serves as a useful case study. Among the creoles, the decision to secede was inspired by two foreign models: Democracy, as a concept, was less developed. Their entire ideological rhetoric was conveyed in Spanish, which by then was the lingua franca of all social classes.
An effort by lexicographers, philologists, and educators involved legitimizing indigenous words, such as hamaca hammockcacahuate peanutescuincle childand aguacate avocado. Independence was followed in Mexico by an extended period of political instability. Given the broad territory, that variety was never homogenous. It has been noticed by linguists of diverse theoretical persuasions that Mexican Spanish, particularly in the center of the country, loses strength in the pronunciation of vowels, whereas consonants are pronounced strongly.
There are several varieties of Mexican Spanish: Next in line in the fight for independence was Brazil, which is part of Latin America although culturally and linguistically its roots are quite different.
Hispanic America and Luso—Portuguese—America. In Brazil finally pushed the Portuguese out, followed by the liberation of various regions of South America, from Argentina to Peru and from Venezuela and Colombia. It is obvious in oral communication.
In Central America, the phenomenon of voseo affects verbal conjugations in the present, present subjunctive, and imperative. Unlike Mexico and Central America, where the aboriginal population played a crucial role, in Argentina and Uruguay the role of indigenous tribes was rather small in comparison.
Intriguingly, there developed in the region a rural type, called Gaucho, that in complex ways is the equivalent of the cowboy in the American West and, in the national imagination, is seen as a kind of aboriginal type. Civilization and Barbarism,he looks at the Gaucho as an obstacle—awkward, primitive—to Argentina becoming a modern nation.
The antidote, he proposes, is European immigration. Indeed, Argentina opened its doors in the s to an influx of immigrants. People with diverse origins arrived: Spanish, Basque, Galician, Portuguese, and northern Italian. There were also new arrivals from France, Germany, and other European countries.
Castellano vs. Español
Between andimmigration came from Southern Italy. Approximately 40 percent of all Argentines have Italian ancestry. Additionally, Argentina always had a population of English speakers, particularly from Britain and Ireland. As a result of this influx, the slang of the lower-class, Lunfardo, which ended up defining Argentine Spanish, originated among Italian immigrants.
It was at first the parlance of prostitutes and criminals. Jorge Luis Borges, always fascinated with linguistic changes, explored it in parts of his oeuvre. Keeping in mind fundamental cultural differences, he is a figure of the type of Samuel Johnson, the 17th-century English lexicographer and man of letters, author of a magisterial dictionary of the English language. Bello caught the bug, hoping to translate the political dreams into the cultural realm through essays, articles, and philological investigations about what made the region unique.
This last work is an attempt to adapt the language to regional usage. Organized in a methodical way that looks at the syntactical structure of the Spanish language, his book seeks to offer a way for speakers in the Americas to use the language according to their own needs and not in deference to Iberian attitudes. Convinced that what would give coherence and stability to the new republics would be their culture and, consequently, their language, Bello looked for ways to standardize the written form.
He wanted the language of the Americas to be unified: Bello stressed, time and again, that the Spanish used in Spain is a different form than the one in the Americas, and that this difference should be embraced.
Spanish language - Wikipedia
He believed that Iberian grammarians were too conservative, rejecting as malapropisms anything that came from the New World. At the same time, Bello admonished his fellow Americans to use the language properly and according to basic rules. He proposed simplifying spelling, adapting regional use, and in general recognizing the creativity on this side of the Atlantic. His effort, then, is a balancing act between giving the newly independent republics a sense of worth by recognizing varieties within the language and the drive to keep Spanish across countries as a unified entity.
Yet by the end of the independence period, it was obvious that Spanish in the vast geography of the Americas had evolved in peculiar ways, fostering varieties dependent on regional factors. The result is that rather than a single, homogenized language, each national sphere developed its own characteristics.
These differences are most tangible in terms of accent—that is, at the oral level. And within those theaters, there are multiple subdivisions. Colombian Spanish tends to be fuller in terms of pronunciation whereas Caribbean varieties in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic abbreviate the last syllable of words. Vocabulary tends to be shaped by local needs and acquires unique characteristics in connection with food, flora and fauna, and sexual references.
There are myriad comparative dictionaries where the varieties of Latin American Spanish are represented. An avid reader of Bello, he sought to improve on an aspect he found lacking in his predecessor: For Cuervo language is an organism in constant mutation. Toward a Modern Tongue At the end of the 19th century, as the wars of independence were bearing fruit, the Spanish Empire faced its collapse.
This became evident during the Spanish-American War ofwhen Spain faced the loss of some of its last remaining territories, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, and the United States, a nascent global force, become the conquering force in the Caribbean Basin, the Pacific, and beyond.
A referendum of Spanish culture in the Americas took place. The former mother country was perceived as intrusive, imperialistic. The citizens of the new republics were eager to look elsewhere for inspiration, especially to France. It is during this period that an aesthetic movement, involving music, painting, and architecture but especially writing, known as modernismo, swept through the Americas spanning roughly from to Its general objective was to encourage the region to embrace modernity in order to become a partner with the rest of the industrial world.
At the level of language and literature, it imitated French symbolism, Parnassianism, and other trends, and it looked to Paris as the capital of culture. It was the first time that intellectuals from various parts of Latin America were seen as belonging to the same artistic movement. Their dream was to make American Spanish fluid, harmonious, and transnational. Whenever they included localisms in their poems, stories, essays, and reportage, it was to emphasize the particular in the context of the universal.
Yet the majority of them generally avoided sounding too regional.SPAIN SPANISH vs. LATIN AMERICAN SPANISH
Their quest was to show that the Spanish they used, four hundred years after the conquest, was free, autonomous, and democratic. Such was their impact, first in Spain and decades later in other parts of Europe, that their work began to be regularly translated to French, German, Italian, and Portuguese. Indeed, translation for the modernistas was an essential component to success. Just as they read broadly in the spirit of cosmopolitanism, they wanted their needs to be understood beyond their immediate circumstances.
Modernity, for them, was a type of urban angst felt wherever culture mattered in the world, regardless of language. This prompted them to look attentively at their own language, Spanish, as a ticket to humanism. Distribution of books was difficult, though. Volumes released in Managua or Caracas seldom traveled beyond the immediate region. Whatever appeared there was noticed by newspapers. Yet it was through word of mouth, to a large extent, that the modernista fever jumped national borders.
There was another component that also helped. The members of this generation understood travel differently from their predecessors. To be educated was to travel, and to travel as to be exposed to different kinds of stimulation.
The extent to which the modernistas were frequent collaborators in international periodicals, then, makes sense. That cross-fertilization, again, was an invaluable resource not only in the spread of a modern sensibility but in the effort to standardize Spanish as a language that spoke to millions across nations.
In that sense it is important to stress the role the modernistas had as public intellectuals in exploring the worth of Spanish throughout Latin America. Why are there differences? When Spanish colonisers travelled the world to spread the word of god and take precious metals in return, they brought with them a language that was in the process of changing back at home.
An example in English would be the use of fall in the USA and autumn in Britain; when British colonisers went to America, fall was more common than the Latin version in British English. The older, Germanic word fall later became obsolete in Britain but has remained in common use in the USA.
This process happens with vocabulary but also with grammar.
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- The differences between Latin American Spanish and Spanish in Spain
- The Spanish Language in Latin America since Independence
Later on, immigrant groups from different parts of Europe brought linguistic traditions with them to Latin America. In turn, these groups met different local linguistic traditions, creating variations in local dialects.
Voseo When the Spanish colonies were founded by different groups, they took with them the Spanish that was spoken in Spain at that time, along with elements of their local dialects. The Spanish spoken in the colonies then started to develop in slightly different directions as there was limited communication with Spain telephones were still hundreds of years away. Some elements of older Spanish were kept, others dropped.
One of the clearest examples of that process is the use of vos, primarily in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. It was commonly used in Spanish when the language reached the southern cone of the Americas. It fell out of use in Spain but stayed in Rioplatense Spanish. Ustedes Latin American varieties of Spanish do not use vosotros you, plural, informalpreferring the formal ustedes.
This means that learners in Spain have to remember another verb ending. In Latin America, you would use the second form for both. Ustedes is also used in the Canary Islands; only the Balearics and mainland Spain use vosotros. If you only use the Latin American form, you will be understood perfectly well in Spain.
In fact, people will probably just consider you polite!