Dating a silver shekel of tyre

CHRISTUS VITAE COLLECTION OF SHEKELS FROM THE LIFETIME OF JESUS

dating a silver shekel of tyre

Dated Coins of Antiquity (DCA), Supplemental Photographs of Tyre Contents. Dated Taking a different view of the Tyrian silver coins, photographs in this. Tyre. /5 BC-AD 65/6. Collection of 38 AR shekels spanning the lifetime This extraordinary set of 38 dated shekels of Tyre, the main silver. Bible Coins, the Tyre Shekel and relevance to the Bible, Jesus, and ancient coins . What if the coin you were holding truly was one of the thirty pieces of silver Judas A club, which is the Tyre mintmark, fills the left field along with the date.

Meshorer see below says they were minted in Jerusalem. If this is the case, the puzzle remains why the Jews would continue to use Herakles image on the temple tax coins. This then, would explain the pagan symbol on the temple tax coins.

The Pharisees had actually devised a legalistic "work around" so they could use the coin for the Temple tax with a clear conscience even though it violated two of the ten commandments: Four things does Rabban Gamaliel declare unclean, and do sages declare clean: And sages agree with Rabban Gamaliel concerning a plate which was divided into two, one large and one small, that the large is unclean, and the small clean.

The reason for this is, as the Mishnah makes clear, that valid money is not subject to being unclean, and is only susceptible to uncleanliness when it is used for another purpose such as jewelry or a weight KELTM 12,7. Since a viable coin cannot be defiled, the only relevance is its value and purity, not its design. It is known that a coin does not become defiled "unclean," Mishna, Kelim 12, 6and the pagan symbols on it are obviously invalid.

Question about Shekel of Tyre | Coin Talk

Therefore, as an expression of contempt for the Tyrian designs on the shekels, the Jerusalem mint executed them with demonstrative crudity. In contrast to this crude rendition, the Jerusalem shekels were not inferior to the early ones in their silver content, and even surpassed them in this respect.

It is clear that emphasis was placed on the purity and weight of the silver, while no importance was attached to the coin's appearance as a product of Jewish Jerusalem and not of Tyre. This was a high quality issue of coins which featured the "club" symbol of the Tyre Mint to the left of the left leg of the eagle.

Early shekels are distinguished from late shekels because the early lack the "KAP" inscription behind the eagles back which is on the late edition coins. The early shekels are large and usually feature all of the peripheral inscription. They are well made and the style of the designs is of high artistic quality. The coin has a concave shape resembling that of a small bowl and is not really flat. On the other hand, the shekels of the late group are smaller in diameter, but thicker and have a completely flat shape.

This is then a fundamental technical change that gave rise to coins with a completely different appearance, although the quantity and quality of the metal was the same in both groups. Late crude silver Shekel: The production transfer of this coin from Tyre to Jerusalem coincides with Herod completing the new temple in Jerusalem.

The two events must be connected somehow. Kratos Romaion "power of the Romans". Otherwise the obverse side of the coin is identical throughout BC - 66 AD. Exactly why the quality of the coins would deteriorate when the temple was completed we do not know. With such an important new temple, it would seem logical to expect the quality of this important coin increased not decreased.

Some have speculated that the coins production was transferred from Tyre to Jerusalem. If this happened a further speculation is that the skilled Tyrian die makers boycotted the production in Jerusalem when the "club symbol" of the Tyre mint remained on the coin even though it was NOT produced in Tyre.

This coin is nick named the Crude shekel because of the poor quality of workmanship that went into making the coin dies.

The Handbook of Biblical Numismatics

The poor quality is seen in the portrait of Heracles and the eagle. It likely bugged the Jews to created the dies of a Greek pagan God, so they did it poorly. That's about as consistent as a fuzzy, "out of focus" nude pin up of a blonde in the men's washroom of the church building. The Roman mint in Antioch started to strike inferior coinage as from the mid-fifties of the first century C. These were tetradrachms that are termed "Neronian selaim" in the Jewish sources.

dating a silver shekel of tyre

A well-known law of economics Gresham' s Law determines that inferior coinage infused into a market drives out the good coinage. The reason for this is the special situation that was created in Jerusalem when two monetary systems became established.

One of them was connected with holy payments to the Temple, that was based on the purity of the Tyrian shekels. The other, parallel, system consisted of all the other coins that were in circulation. There was no reason for the removal of the good money from circulation, i. At the same time it would have been illogical for Tyre to continue minting these shekels while the market was flooded with inferior Roman provincial coinage. We must also consider the time of the cessation of the minting of Tyrian shekels.

In that year the Jewish War against the Romans broke out. The leaders of the revolt were in need of coins of a new type that would demonstrate the historical change by means of symbols and inscriptions. The year 66 C. If the Tyrian shekels were struck in Tyre, there would have been no reason for the cessation of their minting in 66 C.

In this context it is interesting to mention that the silver contents of the Jewish shekels and the trace elements in them are identical to those of the Tyrian shekels. The Herodian circle has now been closed. We have come to the conclusion that in Herod's day the minting of Tyrian shekels was transferred to Jerusalem and continued there, without interruption, for 85 years. It is important to mention that this is also verified by archaeological finds.

Most of the shekels of the first group, minted in Tyre, originate from archaeological finds in Phoenicia, while those of the second group are found only in the Land of Israel. Since the Temple also served as the nation's main bank, the monetary activity in it gave great power to the high priests.

Reading the date code for Tyrian silver shekels: Shekels of Tyre have a date code using and alpha-numeric system that assigns a number to each letter of the Greek alphabet.

dating a silver shekel of tyre

The coins start with year one, which is year BC. This is the year Tyre gained independence from the Seleucids. Remember that there was no year zero "0" in the ancient calendars so the year went from 1 BC to 1 AD d. The collection of 38 shekels of Tyre, all struck in consecutive years spanning the lifetime of Jesus of Nazareth, was assembled by Frank L. Kovacs of Corte Madera, California, over about a year period and without the benefit of a Whitman folder with one hole for each date!

dating a silver shekel of tyre

Here are excerpts from the catalog description. OY, Eagle standing left on prow, palm frond over wing; to left Civic Year date in Greek letter-numerals above club; to right, KP above monogram; Phoenician letter indicating officina between legs. Individual dates, weights are provided below. Attributions are by Roman Provincial Coins Vol.

I supplement, and by Dated Coins of Antiquity Vol. Rarity ratings are according to DCA 1 and are as follows: Shekels of Tyre updates the rarity assessment at least one example was found for most of the issues listed as U in Volume 1. Hence we are justified in calling it "The Collection of a Lifetime.

Ancient Shekels

Widely known as an expert on dated coinages of the Classical East including Armenia, Judaea, Syria and PhoeniciaFrank's extensive contacts provided him the opportunity to acquire several newly discovered dates that still survive only singly or in tiny numbers fewer than five known examples. Thus this collection would be impossible to duplicate until more examples come to light.

dating a silver shekel of tyre

The Lifespan of Jesus: Even without taking up the question of his divinity, Jesus of Nazareth, widely known as Jesus Christ, is arguably the most important person in the history of Western Civilization. This dating system is based on the calculations of Dionysius Exeguus in about AD ; however, modern scholars have concluded that Jesus was actually born a few years earlier, probably BC. Establishing the actual lifespan of Jesus is thus an uncertain exercise at best, as the Gospel accounts contain no detailed time line and the actual dates that are mentioned are frequently contradictory.

The Phoenician port city of Tyre rose to prominence in the tenth century BC as an international trade center, becoming wealthy from its export of a deep purple dye made from a mollusk, the famous "Tyrian purple" worn by royalty. It maintained good relations with the Kingdom of Israel and even helped finance the construction of Solomon's temple circa BC.