A Brief History of Tobacco Pipes & Pipe Collecting
Mar 8, 5, BAMBOO Tobacco Smoking Pipes Lot ~ Wholesale Only RESELL . and the pipes can be dated from the hallmark carried by the silver. Results 27 - 57 17th and 18thcentury sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems .. fragments are the cigarette butts of the colonial period; cheap and. usefulness of clay pipe remains in dating Australian archaeological sites. a) be cheap and readily available, something commonly used in daily life;.
After the battle of Trafalgar a pipe was produced showing Nelson with a lowered flag on one side and Britannia on the other. Although numbers of pipes were not produced in the same quantity as the early 18th Century it seems that around the 's the industry took on a new lease of life and began to increase rapidly once again to reach a peak in the 's.
Hole sizes in Pipe Stems - A way of dating? While these have been prooved to work fairly well where large groups usually dozens-hundreds have been found it is not always possible to date a random piece of broken stem by the size of the hole because there are many other factors that come into play. The thickness of the stem, surface finish and porosity, alignment of sides, tool marks, junction at base of the bowl etc. However, the larger thick more weathered pipe stems that are often found with a bigger hole in the middle tend to be earlier from the 17thth Centuries, whereas thinner stems with even sides, smoother surfaces and much smaller holes tend to be from the 19th Century.
It is worth mentioning also here that Dutch pipes of the 18th Century have very long narrow stems with smaller holes whereas English pipes of the same period tend to have larger holes so this is another thing to be considered according to where finds are made. During the Victorian period some pipes were made in such a hurry and without thought for the smoker that the hole in the stem was not always practical or even joined with the bowl.
In my experience as a clay pipe maker of replica's for all periods I sometimes simply take the nearest piece of wire to hand according to the length or style of the pipe I am making. I am sure pipe makers of past times did the same, especially if taking on apprentices. The Manchester firm of Pollocks even used umbrella spokes at one time! Very often smoker's prefer a hole that allows them to drink or sip tobacco rather than having to suck really hard through a hole that keeps blocking up.
These have very delicate thin walled bowls and often a narrow pointed spur with initials of the maker on the side. Ribs, Scallops and Leaf designs were common then often also incorporating symbolism for taverns or masonics. A number of English makers were also producing simple face styles, usually military dragoons, turks or druids. Some of the scalloped and ribbed bowls are very elegant with the lines following the curve of the bowl perfectly.
Finds of this period are very frequent in gardens as the 's was a peak time for production. Often only the bases of the bowls survive but they can be enough to identify the time period and sometimes the maker which is highly useful for archaeologists and local history groups.
The ones featured in the picture here were made in Bristol as well as the Isle of Wight. On the example below the mould lines are not trimmed well because it saved time in production at a period when these early English fancy pipes were in high demand. The mould engraving is often also very simple and you can see where the tools have often slipped.
Victorian Period Fancy Pipes and the 20th Century Decline From about the 's a number of French decided to take up clay pipe making, often copying some of the Dutch styles of that time but also bringing in a new form of pipe which had a bowl and a fitted stem. The French became so good at making these that by the 's they were producing a vast range of "fancy" pipes which had a huge influence on English pipe makers and other industries around Europe.
Pipe makers began to compete with the more exotic designs coming in from the continent and the English pipe industry moved into a gradual decline again. Not only were they competing with other countries products but the trade in England was also becoming more centralised with larger firms in parts of the county taking the lead and smaller country workshops closing down. The pipes styles and designs throughout the 19th and early 20th Centuries were vast; covering almost any and every topic you could think of.
It was a way of advertising and promoting not only a skilled maker but also a celebration of life at that time and the social history taking place. A few examples of English and French clays follow which will help you to see the huge variation of pipes to be found from this period.
After WWI and the coming of cigarettes the clay pipe industry almost dies out completely. Just a few workshops continued to provide for the few loyal smokers and it is because of their work that we have a few people like myself who have taken up pipe making in the 21st Century. These were produced from about but most often date from about to They are usually short "cutty" 4 inch working men's pipe with thick bowls or "straw" slightly longer narrow stem of about 7 inches with thinner more elegant bowls.
The Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffalo's is a society which was formed in the mid 19th century. Records show that the seeds were first sewn in about by the theatrical fraternity but the Buffs as we know it surfaced some years later. The first charter formalising the RAOB was written in There are records of early ceremonies and the first mention found of clay pipes being used was in In that Initiation ceremony the pipe was broken over the candidates head.
There is no mention of the design or style of the pipe used and sometimes a plain churchwarden pipe is used instead of the type with horns on the bowl.
Clay Pipe Gallery
In the modern initiation ceremony the candidate breaks the pipe near his heart its less traumatic. In senior ceremonies a pipe is broken on the candidates shoulder. The RAOB are still very active today doing much charity work.
Information kindly supplied by an RAOB member with thanks. Pipes were also made for Freemasons, Druids and other Friendly Societies which used to meet in the local taverns where clay pipes were given out free. Irish Theme Pipes Irish pipes are extremely common and were mainly made during the 19th - 20th Centuries and still are today.
The most common method is to use the butt ends of a set of Imperial drill bits, although a finely gradated ruler or other measuring devices can also be used. Retaining this unit of measurement ensures that any new data is comparable with previously published material.
The Art and Archaeology of Clay Pipes
It also allows the date of larger assemblages to be calculated using the stem bore dating formulae that have been developed in the USA.
There are also a number of concerns over how reliable any date arrived at actually is. Stem bores can, however, be used for distributional plots or as bar graphs to show changing site use over time.
The divisions provided by 64ths of an inch make convenient units to express this sort of data. The fractions of an inch are always given in 64ths, and not rationalised to larger alternative units e.
They were also subject to marked regional variation prior to the nineteenth century, so the shape can also be used to identify which part of the country a pipe comes from. For this reason, it is important to look at specific local typologies as well as the more general national ones. Early pipes dating from before the English Civil War of the s tend to follow London fashions but the disruption of the war appears to have allowed regional forms to develop.
These regional fashions continued until the mid-nineteenth century when improved transport networks allowed pipes to be traded over much larger areas, diluting local fashions. There was also a move towards larger manufactories producing a wide range of different shaped pipes which do not follow the earlier typological progression and are more difficult to place into a simple type series. In broad terms there were always two different styles of pipe in contemporary use; those with heels and those with spurs.
A heel is the term used for a flat-based projection underneath the bowl of a pipe, which typically has near vertical sides, or ones that flare out towards its base. A heel is usually broader than it is deep, as opposed to a spur, which is the opposite. A spur is the term used for a projection underneath the bowl that is usually longer than it is broad. It typically tapers to a pointed or rounded base, although later varieties sometimes have the end trimmed off.
How to identify old clay pipes | Old Stuff | Pinterest | Clay pipes, Clay tobacco pipe and Pipes
Pipes without a heel or spur were produced for the export trade from the mid-seventeenth century onwards but only came into general use in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. Diagram showing the most commonly used terminology for different parts of the pipe.Mudlarking along the River Thames London - Clay Pipe Special!
Heel forms were the earliest style to be introduced in the late sixteenth century and remained the dominant form in most areas for at least the next century. Spur forms first appear in the very early seventeenth century and soon became an alternative style used in lesser numbers in most areas of the country.
Many of these pipes, which are over years old, are elaborately carved with representations of animals, and from that time to this day, a lot of care and artistry has gone into the making of pipes all over the world.
The first Europeans to smoke tobacco pipes were sailors of the Columbus expedition and those of other navigators of the time such as Vespucci and Magellan, who, having adopted the habit from the Indians, brought home with them calumets and tobacco. From France it spread to the Low Countries and thence to Britain. Sir Walter Raleigh did much to popularise the habit of smoking the pipe in England, but it is difficult to ascertain whether he actually introduced it, or whether this distinction belongs to his great contemporaries and fel- low sailors, Drake and Hawkins.
It is, however, an established fact that pipe smoking was common in this country before the end of the sixteenth century and the pipe makers of London became an incorporated body by The pipe found its greatest vogue in the nineteenth century, when some of the most beautiful specimens were made and this vogue grew as the century advanced becoming quite a cult with our Victorian grandfathers.
The neolithic stone pipes have already been mentioned. While these were made of hard stone, a softer type of rock was used until quite recently, to make pipe bowls, in Palestine.
This is a dark grey bituminous limestone found on the western shores of the Dead Sea and these pipe heads were used in conjunction with a long wooden stem. Soap-stone bowls were often made for the calumet which had a stem of reed or painted wood about 21 feet long, decorated with feathers. The Eskimos have fashioned pipes out of reindeer antlers, while in parts of central Europe the antlers of red and fallow deer were used for the same purpose. Glass has been used from time to time, and the best known specimens were produced in the first half of the nineteenth century at the Bristol and Nailsea works, in all the delightful shades for which these factories were noted.
These glass pipes—be they of clear glass with white or coloured symmetrical waves, or of an opaque milky-white texture with blue or red waves—were very attractive but it is doubtful if any but the smallest were ever smoked. Corn-cobs suitably dried and toasted, fitted with a short straight stem of wood or cork and a bone mouthpiece, have enjoyed long popularity in the United States.
Calabash, which is a fruit of the gourd family, has been used for making bowls and was much smoked in this country during the 30 or 40 years preceding the first world war. The rim of the pipe and the end of the stem, where it adjoins the curved amber or ebonite mouthpiece, were generally protected by a silver band and the pipes can be dated from the hallmark carried by the silver.
Finely carved meerschaum pipes. The carvings ranged from heads or busts to carefully cktailed hunting or battle scenes.