past glaciation (Moraine and Glacial Geomorphology and Landforms of other examples. versus absolute-dating methods, and thus characteristics of many. Geochronology is the science of dating and determining the time sequence rock, or geologic feature or event defined relative to other organisms, rocks, geomorphological methods, sedimentation characteristics, and other. Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, . The study of landforms and the evolution of the Earth's surface can be dated back to scholars of Classical Greece .
Location map of Study area. The altitude of study area varies from metres to metres above the sea level. The east Liddar drains the large area of in upper reaches of the valley.
The east Liddar lows for a maximum length of 14 kms before it merges with east Liddar at famous tourist spot Phalgam.
The area reveals variegated topography due to the combined action of glaciers and rivers. Presently there are number of glaciers in east Liddar. They are concentrated near Shishram Mountains and cover 30 sq. This glacier group is named after Shishram which is largest glacier of the area. The geological formations of the area range from Devonian to Triassic with recent formations along the rivers and glaciers of east Liddar valley Figures 2 and 3.
Average Maximum and Minimum temperatures? Annual precipitation in mm from to Materials and Methodology Map was produced using a combination of remote sensing analysis and field check with multiple type of imagery consulted to present the most rigorous understanding of glacial geomorphology.
The satellite imagery was compiled into false-colour composite of bands 5, 4, 3 30 meter resolution in order to identify and map the landforms formed due to advance and retreat of glaciers in the past. Using standard image characteristics such as tone, texture, pattern, shape, size, location and associated etc.
Figure 4 demonstrates the flowchart of this study. Methodology flowchart for the glacial-geomorphological mapping. Results Based on satellite data and field expeditions carried out in east Liddar valley well developed Glacio-geomorphic features were identified like terminal moraines, lateral moraines, cirques, glacial lakeswhalebacks, rochee mountanee, erratics, hanging valleysdebris cones.
A Glacialgeomorphological map of east Liddar has been prepared on scale of 1: The slope morphometry of the glaciers of the east Liddar as well as valley shows that most of Geomorphological features are developed due to glacial activity. The broken fragments have been carried down by either melt water or as a mass flux.
The lower ablation zone of Dudhal glacier, one of the glaciers among the east Liddar glaciers is covered by surface moraine [ 4 - 6 ].
Glacial-geomorphological map of east Liddar. Field evidences of different glacio-geomorphological features in east Liddar. Landsat images of different features in east Liddar. The moraine near the snout is spread over 0. Landform description Lateral moraines: Lateral moraines are the linear ridges produced from the dumping of till with allied outwash deposits in the trough between the glaciers and valley sides.
They are one of the commonest depositional features of the region and are aligned parallel to the margin of east liddar [ 7 - 9 ]. The lateral morainic ridges covers almost entire east liddar valley. They extend from chandawari upto Shishnag Lake. In the hanging valleys of manipal, Duldal, Wokhbal and Tuliyan the morainic ridges are well preserved along both the sides of their tributary channels.
The height of lateral moraine near the lake is about metres Using Google Earth measurements. A well-developed terminal moraine indicates that the ice remained inactive for a considerable period of time.
Terminal moraines are the ridge of till that marks the maximum limit of glacier advance. The series of terminal moraines which marks the recession of the glacier are called recessional moraines. These are crescent-shapped with the convex side extending down the valley and appear as arcuate ridge.
In east Liddar valley several moraines were identified and mapped. Near the snout of Shishram glacier, a chain of end moraines have been identified. Other terminal moraines have been identified in front of Shishnag Lake. They are primarily comprised of angular rock fragments. Other terminal moraines were identified and mapped in zaijpal, chandawari, ganshibal areas of east liddar valley. These terminal moraines appear as linear—curvilinear ridges with brown-grey colour for non-vegetated and red colour for vegetated, with medium to course texture along the terminus of the valley glacier on the satellite image.
In east Liddar valley a number of deglaciated valleys have been mapped, the most prominent are Shishnag valley, ganshibal valley, chandawari valley and sonsar valley.
The deglaciated valley lies below the ablation zone and is formed due to the retreat of a glacier from its maximum extent. It appears as brown colour with medium texture on satellite data. One of the most outstanding characteristics of a well-developed glaciated valley is U-shape of its cross-profile. The side walls are considerably steep, approaching to vertical in place and the valley floor is broad and flat than in the river.
Widening and deepening may depend upon the ability of the glacier to erode valley walls and cut into the rock of its bed. This also depends upon the lithology of its bedrocks and glacial plucking of the previously loosened blocks. Apart from the U-shapped cross-profile, other important features of the deglaciated valley are the presence of number of arcuate shaped ridges of terminal moraines, linear to curvilinear lateral moraines and scattered ground moraines, indicative of stages of deglaciation.
The valley floors are filled with reworked outwash sediments and exhibits braided stream channels. The deglaciated valley is also marked by series of rock basins, formed probably by plucking in the areas of bed rocks which were shattered or closely jointed.
Striations, grooves and polished surfaces: Striations, grooves and polished surfaces are the permanent on the surface of bedrocks by glaciers.
The strength of marks depends upon the shape and comparative hardness of abrasion tools. The striations and polished surfaces are well-preserved along the valleyhead and valleywalls of east liddar valley.
Denudation of these high uplifted regions produces sediment that is transported and deposited elsewhere within the landscape or off the coast. Often, these processes directly affect each other: Topography can modify the local climate, for example through orographic precipitationwhich in turn modifies the topography by changing the hydrologic regime in which it evolves.
Many geomorphologists are particularly interested in the potential for feedbacks between climate and tectonicsmediated by geomorphic processes. Glacial geomorphologists investigate glacial deposits such as moraineseskersand proglacial lakesas well as glacial erosional features, to build chronologies of both small glaciers and large ice sheets and understand their motions and effects upon the landscape.
Fluvial geomorphologists focus on rivershow they transport sedimentmigrate across the landscapecut into bedrockrespond to environmental and tectonic changes, and interact with humans. Soils geomorphologists investigate soil profiles and chemistry to learn about the history of a particular landscape and understand how climate, biota, and rock interact.
Other geomorphologists study how hillslopes form and change. Still others investigate the relationships between ecology and geomorphology. Because geomorphology is defined to comprise everything related to the surface of the Earth and its modification, it is a broad field with many facets. Geomorphologists use a wide range of techniques in their work.
These may include fieldwork and field data collection, the interpretation of remotely sensed data, geochemical analyses, and the numerical modelling of the physics of landscapes. Geomorphologists may rely on geochronologyusing dating methods to measure the rate of changes to the surface. Planetary geomorphology studies landforms on other terrestrial planets such as Mars.
Indications of effects of windfluvialglacialmass wastingmeteor impacttectonics and volcanic processes are studied. This effort not only helps better understand the geologic and atmospheric history of those planets but also extends geomorphological study of the Earth. Planetary geomorphologists often use Earth analogues to aid in their study of surfaces of other planets.
The cone itself is a volcanic edifice, representing complex interaction of intrusive igneous rocks with the surrounding salt.
The lake occupies an " overdeepening " carved by flowing ice that once occupied this glacial valley. Other than some notable exceptions in antiquity, geomorphology is a relatively young science, growing along with interest in other aspects of the earth sciences in the midth century. This section provides a very brief outline of some of the major figures and events in its development. Ancient geomorphology[ edit ] The study of landforms and the evolution of the Earth's surface can be dated back to scholars of Classical Greece.
Herodotus argued from observations of soils that the Nile delta was actively growing into the Mediterranean Seaand estimated its age.
He claimed that this would mean that land and water would eventually swap places, whereupon the process would begin again in an endless cycle.
This was based on his observation of marine fossil shells in a geological stratum of a mountain hundreds of miles from the Pacific Ocean. Noticing bivalve shells running in a horizontal span along the cut section of a cliffside, he theorized that the cliff was once the pre-historic location of a seashore that had shifted hundreds of miles over the centuries.
He inferred that the land was reshaped and formed by soil erosion of the mountains and by deposition of siltafter observing strange natural erosions of the Taihang Mountains and the Yandang Mountain near Wenzhou. McGee used it during the International Geological Conference of An early popular geomorphic model was the geographical cycle or cycle of erosion model of broad-scale landscape evolution developed by William Morris Davis between and It was thought that tectonic uplift could then start the cycle over.
In the decades following Davis's development of this idea, many of those studying geomorphology sought to fit their findings into this framework, known today as "Davisian". Penck was German, and during his lifetime his ideas were at times rejected vigorously by the English-speaking geomorphology community. In the early 19th century, authors — especially in Europe — had tended to attribute the form of landscapes to local climateand in particular to the specific effects of glaciation and periglacial processes.
In contrast, both Davis and Penck were seeking to emphasize the importance of evolution of landscapes through time and the generality of the Earth's surface processes across different landscapes under different conditions.
During the early s, the study of regional-scale geomorphology was termed "physiography". Some geomorphologists held to a geological basis for physiography and emphasized a concept of physiographic regions while a conflicting trend among geographers was to equate physiography with "pure morphology", separated from its geological heritage.
Climatic geomorphology During the age of New Imperialism in the late 19th century European explorers and scientists traveled across the globe bringing descriptions of landscapes and landforms.
As geographical knowledge increased over time these observations were systematized in a search for regional patterns.
Dating geomorphic features. Luminescence chronometry and Late Quaternary geomorphic.
Climate emerged thus as prime factor for explaining landform distribution at a grand scale. William Morris Davisthe leading geomorphologist of his time, recognized the role of climate by complementing his "normal" temperate climate cycle of erosion with arid and glacial ones. Peltier's publication on a periglacial cycle of erosion. This landscape, with its high altitude plateau being incised into by the steep slopes of the escarpment, was cited by Davis as a classic example of his cycle of erosion.
ShieldsThomas MaddockArthur StrahlerStanley Schummand Ronald Shreve began to research the form of landscape elements such as rivers and hillslopes by taking systematic, direct, quantitative measurements of aspects of them and investigating the scaling of these measurements.
These methods began to allow prediction of the past and future behavior of landscapes from present observations, and were later to develop into the modern trend of a highly quantitative approach to geomorphic problems.
Many groundbreaking and widely cited early geomorphology studies appeared in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America and received only few citations prior to they are examples of "sleeping beauties"  when a marked increase in quantitative geomorphology research occurred. These approaches are used to understand weathering and the formation of soilssediment transportlandscape change, and the interactions between climate, tectonics, erosion, and deposition.
This developed into "the Uppsala School of Physical Geography ". Particularly important realizations in contemporary geomorphology include: Instead, dynamic changes of the landscape are now seen as an essential part of their nature. Albeit having its importance diminished climatic geomorphology continues to exist as field of study producing relevant research. More recently concerns over global warming have led to a renewed interest in the field.
This is the deepest river canyon in the world. Nanga Parbat itself, the world's 9th highest mountain, is seen in the background.