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Hoc enim verbum, inlaudati, non est idoneum ad exprimendam sceleratissimi hominis detestationem, qui, quod homines omnium gentium immolare solitus fuit, non laude indignus sed detestatione execrationeque totius generis humani dignus est. Per tunicam squalentem auro Non enim convenit dicere auto squalentem, quoniam nitori splendorique auri contraria sit squaloris inluvies.
Vexasse grave verbum est, tractumque ab eo videtur quod est vehere, in quo inest iam vis quaedam alieni arbitrii, non enim sui potens est qui vehitur. Vexare autem, quod ex eo inclinatum est, vi atque motu procul dubio vastiore est. Cumque Hannibal terram Italiam laceraret atque vexaret. Tullius quarto in Verrem: Nemo quisquam tam efflictis est moribus quin faciat aut dicat nonnumquam aliquid quod laudari queat.
Unde hic antiquissimus versus vice proverbii celebratus est: Eadem ratione idem Virgilius inamabilem dixit Stygiam paludem. Laudare significat prisca lingua nominare appellareque: Id autem significat copiam densitatemque auri in squamarum speciem intexti.
Squalere enim dictum est ab squamarum crebritate asperitateque, quae in serpentum pisciumve coriis visuntur. Iamque adeo rutilum thoraca indutus aenis Horrebat squamis. Sic in corporibus incultis squamosisque alta congeries sordium squalor appellatur: Sed in hoc versu videtur mihi deesse aliquid: Ipse Quirinali lituo parvaque sedebat Succinctus trabea.
Si enim nihil deesse concedimus, restat ut fit lituo et trabea succinctus: Cicero homo magna eloquentia et Roscius histrio summa venustate, non plenum hoc utrumque neque perfectum est, sed enim pro pleno ac perfecto auditur. Victorem Buten inmani corpore id est corpus inmane habentem, et item alibi: Ipse Quirinali lituo, id est lituum Quirinalem tenens. Quod minime mirandum foret, si ita dictum fuisset: Picus Quirinali lituo erat, sicuti dicimus: Et est autem et erat et fuit plerumque absunt cum elegantia sine detrimento sententiae.
Utrumque enim pari forma et pariter in capite incurvum est. Utitur autem vocabulo isto Virgilius et pro tuba, ut ibi: Maturate fugam quid sit, parum mihi liquet. Contraria enim videtur mihi fuga maturitati: Nigidius, homo omnium bonarum artium disciplinis egregius: Mature, inquit, est quod neque citius neque serius, sed medium quiddam et temperatum est. Bene atque proprie Nigidius. Nam et in frugibus et in pomis matura dicuntur quae neque cruda et inmitia sunt neque caduca et nimium cocta, sed tempore suo temperate adulta.
Note the following sentences: In the second, who quae refers to woman feminamand feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives in the same case.
Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are who? Examine the sentences a. Who is the man? What man is leading them? Qui vir eos ducit? In a, who is an interrogative pronoun. In b, what is an interrogative adjective. In the singular it is declined as follows: Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid.
Servus quem amo est aeger. Scutum habeo quod legatus ad castellum misit. Cui legatus suum scutum dabit? Filio meo scutum dabit. Ubi Germani antiqui vivebant? In terra quae est proxima Rheno Germani vivebant. Quibuscum Germani bellum gerebant? Cum Romanis, qui eos superare studebant, Germani bellum gerebant. Qui viri castra ponunt? Ii sunt viri quorum armis Germani victi sunt. Quibus telis copiae nostrae eguerunt? Gladiis et telis nostrae copiae eguerunt.
A quibus porta sinistra tenebatur? A sociis porta sinistra tenebatur. Quae provinciae a Romanis occupatae sunt? Multae provinciae a Romanis occupatae sunt. Quibus viris dei favebunt? Bonis viris dei favebunt. What victory will you announce? I will announce to the people the victory which the sailors have won. The men who were pitching camp were eager for battle. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the troops which Sextus had sent.
They could not resist our forces, but fled from that place without delay. Tum sine mora in Tarpeiam scuta graviter iecerunt; nam scuta quoque in sinistris bracchiis gerebant. Ita perfida puella Tarpeia interfecta est; ita Sabini Capitolium occupaverunt. Explain the use of the tenses in this selection. We have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither? If to the base we add -a: These stem vowels, -a: Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called the Consonant or I-Declension, and its nouns are classified according to the way the stem ends.
If the last letter of the stem is a consonant, the word is said to have a consonant stem; if the stem ends in -i- the word is said to have an i-stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. Consonant stems are divided into two classes: Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular.
Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows: The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative: Neque pedites neque equites occupare castellum Romanum poterant.
Summa virtute muros altos cotidie oppugnabant. Pedes militum lapidibus qui de muro iaciebantur saepe vulnerabantur. Quod novum consilium dux cepit? Is perfidam puellam pulchris ornamentis temptavit. Puella commota auro milites per portas duxit. Tamen praemia quae summo studio petiverat non reportavit. Apud Romanos antiquos Tarpeia non est laudata. What ship is that which I see? That illud ship is the Victory. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon approach Italy.
The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to be killed. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. The king led the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest zeal. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter.
With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -o: Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater base or stem patr. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. Always learn this with the nominative. Non solum tubas audio sed etiam ordines militum et carros impedimentorum plenos videre possum. Eae legiones nuper ex Gallia venerunt.
Studebantne pugnare an sine virtute erant? Multa proelia fecerunt et magnas victorias et multos captivos reportaverunt. Quis est imperator earum legionum? Caesar, summus Romanorum imperator. Quis est eques qui pulchram coronam gerit? Is eques est frater meus. Ei corona a consule data est quia summa virtute pugnaverat et a barbaris patriam servaverat.
Who has seen my father to-day? I saw him just now nuper. He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. When men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be restrained from wrong. The safety of the soldiers is dear to Caesar, the general. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of grain which was held by the consul. The king forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed. Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and are declined as follows: Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as flu: Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor.
Barbari ubi Romam ceperunt, maxima regum opera deleverunt. Romani multas calamitates a barbaris acceperunt. Ubi erat summus terror apud oppidanos, animi dubii eorum ab oratore claro confirmati sunt. Roma est in ripis fiuminis magni. Ubi Caesar imperator milites suos arma capere iussit, ii a proelio contineri non potuerunt. Ubi proelium factum est, imperator reperiri non potuit.
Imperator sagitta in capite vulneratus erat et stare non poterat. Eum magno labore pedes ex proelio portavit. Is bracchiis suis imperatorem tenuit et eum ex periculis summis servavit. Virtute sua bonus miles ab imperatore coronam accepit. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. Before the gates he was received by the townsmen.
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A famous orator praised him and said, "By your labors you have saved the fatherland from disaster. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor. To save the fatherland was a great task.
Review the paradigms in Secs. Ubi fuga legionum nuntiata est, summus erat terror totius Romae, et Romani, graviter commoti, sacra crebra deis faciebant et salutem petebant.
Tum Manlius orator animos populi ita confirmavit: Oppida nostra a Cimbris Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agri vastantur, copiae barbarorum Romae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novis animis proelium novum faciemus et Germanos ex patria nostra sine mora agemus, erit nulla salus feminis nostris liberisque.
Antea superati sumus quia imperatores nostri fuerunt infirmi. Nunc Marius, clarus imperator, qui iam multas alias victorias reportavit, legiones ducet et animos nostros terrore Cimbrico liberare maturabit. Sine mora ex Africa in Italiam vocatus est. Copias novas non solum toti Italiae sed etiam provinciis sociorum imperavit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, qui iam proelio studebant, ad Germanorum castra celeriter properavit. Diu et acriter pugnatum est. Marius pater patriae vocatus est.
About the year B. They were traveling with wives and children, and had an army offighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country.
First he defeated the Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed; but the terror Cimbricus continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.
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To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are 1. Nouns in -ns and -rs. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of consonant stems. Note the following differences: Masculines and feminities have -ium in the genitive plural and -i: Masculine and Feminine I-Stems.
Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined as follows: Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before -nt. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows: The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e. A long vowel is shortened before final -l or -r. Urbs quam videtis est Roma.
Cives Romani urbem suam turribus altis et muris longis muniverant. Venti navis longas prohibebant finibus hostium adpropinquare. Imperator a clientibus suis calcaria auri et alia insignia accepit. Milites Romani cum hostibus bella saeva gesserunt et eos caede magna superaverunt. Alia animalia terram, alia mare amant. Naves longae quae auxilium ad imperatorem portabant igni ab hostibus deletae sunt.
In eo mari avis multas vidimus quae longe a terra volaverant. Nonne vidistis navis longas hostium et ignis quibus urbs nostra vastabatur?
Certe, sed nec caedem civium nec fugam clientium vidimus. Aves et alia animalia, ubi ignem viderunt, salutem fuga petere celeriter inceperunt.
Minime, iudex erat apud equites et equus eius insigne pulchrum gerebat. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live. When the general heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold. He said to the citizens, "Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain.
With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words. The original text gives vi: The forms have been regularized to agree with the inflectional table in the Appendix. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.
Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined: The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salus sociorum erat semper cara Romanis. Olim Galli, amici Romanorum, multas iniurias ab Germanis qui trans flumen Rhenum vivebant acceperant.
Ubi legati ab iis ad Caesarem imperatorem Romanum venerunt et auxilium postulaverunt, Romani magnis itineribus ad hostium finis properaverunt. Mox ad ripas magni fluminis venerunt. Imperator studebat copias suas trans fluvium ducere, sed nulla via poterat. Imperator autem, vir clarus, numquam adversa fortuna commotus, novum consilium cepit. Iussit suos in lato flumine facere pontem. Numquam antea pons in Rheno visus erat. Hostes ubi pontem quem Romani fecerant viderunt, summo terrore commoti, sine mora fugam parare inceperunt.
The enemy had taken possession of the top of the mountain. There were many trees on the opposite hills. We pitched our camp near ad a beautiful spring. A march through the enemies' country is never without danger. The time of the month was suitable for the march. The teeth of the monster were long.
When the foot soldiers saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.
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We say build a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings.
Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes: Adjectives of three endings— a different form in the nominative for each gender. Adjectives of two endings— masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different. Adjectives of one ending— masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.
Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two endings; the others have one ending. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows: Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows: Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows: All i-stem adjectives have -i: Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural.
There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems. The Romans invade the Enemy's Country. Olim pedites Romani cum equitibus velocibus in hostium urbem iter faciebant.
Ubi non longe afuerunt, rapuerunt agricolam, qui eis viam brevem et facilem demonstravit. Iam Romani moenia alta, turris validas aliaque opera urbis videre poterant. In moenibus stabant multi principes. Principes ubi viderunt Romanos, iusserunt civis lapides aliaque tela de muris iacere. Tum milites fortes contineri a proelio non poterant et acer imperator signum tuba dari iussit. Summa vi omnes maturaverunt. Imperator Sexto legato impedimenta omnia mandavit.
Sextus impedimenta in summo colle conlocavit. Grave et acre erat proelium, sed hostes non pares Romanis erant. Alii interfecti, alii capti sunt. Apud captivos erant mater sororque regis. Pauci Romanorum ab hostibus vulnerati sunt. Secundum proelium Romanis erat gratum. Fortuna fortibus semper favet. Some months are short, others are long. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs.
The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had been placed because their feet were weary.
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The city which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless. Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter. Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in -u:.
The genitive ends in -u: The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.
Ante adventum Caesaris veloces hostium equites acrem impetum in castra fecerunt. Continere exercitum a proelio non facile erat. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiones ex castris duci. Pro castris cum hostium equitatu pugnatum est. Post tempus breve equitatus trans flumen fugit ubi castra hostium posita erant. Tum victor imperator agros vastavit et vicos hostium cremavit. Castra autem non oppugnavit quia milites erant defessi et locus difficilis.
Hostes non cessaverunt iacere tela, quae paucis nocuerunt. Post adversum proelium principes Gallorum legatos ad Caesarem mittere studebant, sed populo persuadere non poterant. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? I did not see it fem. Because of the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. Caesar didn't make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? No, he made an attack on the left wing.
Who taught your swift horse to obey? I trained my horse with my own hands, nor was the task difficult.
He is a beautiful animal and has great strength. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the following: Galba ad or in oppidum properat Galba ab de or ex oppido properat Galba in oppido habitat From these expressions we may deduce the following rules: Accusative of the Place to. This answers the question Whither? Ablative of the Place from. This answers the question Whence? Ablative of the Place at or in. This answers the question Where?
The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative cf. With them prepositions must not be omitted. Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island. We saw above that the place-relation expressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second declensions.
Locative and Locative Ablative. Learn its declension Sec. Corinthi omnia insignia auri a ducibus victoribus rapta erant. Caesar Genavam exercitum magnis itineribus duxit. Quem pontem hostes cremaverant? Pontem in Rheno hostes cremaverant. Pompeiis multas Romanorum domos videre poteritis. Roma consul equo veloci rus properavit.
Domi consulis homines multi sedebant. Imperator iusserat legatum Athenas cum multis navibus longis navigare. Ante moenia urbis sunt ordines arborum altarum. Propter arbores altas nec lacum nec portum reperire potuimus.
Proeliis crebris Caesar legiones suas quae erant in Gallia exercebat. Cotidie in loco idoneo castra ponebat et muniebat. Caesar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.
He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. After his arrival Caesar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. The enemy hastened to retreat, some because they were afraid, others because of wounds.
Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country. Latin says "by a swift horse.