Ice Core Dating | afrocolombianidad.info
Mar 23, YEC theology (i.e. the Earth and Universe and everything created . These Readers imply our old earth/recent creation view “makes room for evolution. i.e. ice cores, lake and marine sediments, modern carbon dating. Jan 18, Ice Cores and Evolution – do Greenland ice cores show annual layering? Creationists view the lower portion of the ice sheet as accumulating rapidly .. Alley et al., Visual-stratigraphic dating of the GISP2 ice core: basis. Feb 1, Reviews of young earth creation science works by the Institute for YEC Rebuttals · YEC Book Reviews · Astronomy · Evolution They are also very useful in dating the ice caps, as you can count the layers, similar to counting tree rings. Mr. Oard critiques the ice cores known as GRIP and GISP2.
For ice core analysis, the ratio between oxygen and oxygen is used, oxygen being too small for practical purposes. Oxygen has a higher mass than oxygen because it has two more neutrons.
The difference in mass means that the ratio of these isotopes will change when water evaporates or condenses, and the degree of change depends on the air temperature.
During summer, with warmer temperatures, the ratio of oxygen to oxygen in snowfall is higher, while in winter the ratio is lower. This seasonal oscillation in the oxygen isotope ratio can be measured down Greenland ice cores. Furthermore the oxygen isotope ratio can indicate which ice in the core formed during the Ice Age and which ice formed afterwards. I will show that the interpretation of annual layers is good near the top of the ice cores, but becomes increasingly in error lower down the core.
This is because uniformitarian scientists believe the ice sheet is millions of years old and has remained in equilibrium at about the same height and shape for the last few million years. Thus they consider that each annual layer has gradually moved deeper into the ice sheet, becoming greatly compressed in the process. The large number of annual layers they obtain is simply an outgrowth of their extended time scale.
Higher in the ice sheet the annual layer thickness would decrease. Since the Ice Age ended about 4, years ago, the compression of the ice sheet has been much less than uniformitarian scientists believe, but still substantial. However, instead of annual cycles, the oscillations simply represent variations within a single year.
Uniformitarian and creationist views of the present ice sheets Figure 2: Uniformitarian long ages flow model.
Ice Core Dating
Note the annual layers, shown schematically as horizontal lines down the center of the ice sheet, thin considerably with depth in the ice sheet. Uniformitarian scientists believe the Earth is billions of years old. As a result, they believe that ice ages have recurred in cycles many times over the last 2 to 3 million years.
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Thus, they assume that the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets have existed for many millions of years. Furthermore, they believe these ice sheets have more or less maintained their present height in a state of equilibrium during all this time. They think the amount of snow and ice added each year has been approximately balanced by the ice that is lost by melting and calving of icebergs into the ocean.
The weight of the ice causes vertical compression and horizontal flow, since ice behaves like a viscous fluid Figure 1. From these assumptions, they have developed flow models of the ice sheets with the annual layers thinning to paper-thin near the bottom Figure 2.
These assumptions and interpretations result in a vastly different history of the ice sheet from that of a post-Flood rapid ice age model. The amount of snowfall would generally be proportional to the temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean, the height of the building ice sheet, and proximity to the main storm tracks.
The differences between the postulated annual layer thickness down the GRIP ice core on central Greenland based on the uniformitarian model and the creationist model.The Dating of Ice Cores
Uniformitarian model from De Angelis et al,p. Creationist model is generally based on the factors discussed in the text. On the Greenland ice sheet, however, the current snow accumulation is more complicated.
In western Greenland, accumulation increases with altitude up to about 1, m and then decreases from 1, to 3, m. Therefore, they recounted the layers using a finer instrument, and added 25, layers, which is more in line with the corresponding deep sea ocean sediment time scale.
He claims they were assuming an age for the ice, and recalculated it in order to achieve this older age. In effect, they kept going until their assumption was proved. He is absolutely correct, but this is actually a good thing.
For instance, if you know the distance from New York to Los Angeles, and then drove it, and found that your numbers were off by miles, then you examine your route and try again. Scientists have a valid date based on ocean sediments, and this can be used to calibrate other methods of dating. If they are off, then you must refine your measurements to get more accurate results. This is not, as Mr. Oard implies, bending the data until you get the desired result. This is comparing data to make sure your measurements are accurate.
If you have a block used for calibration based on the standard in Washington, and your scale is off by half an ounce, you know you must recalibrate your scale.
The same is true of the ice core…it was merely recalibrated to obtain valid results. This is not baseless assumptions by biased people…it is real science, being performed by real scientists.
Conclusion As shown through science, the ice cores prove valid for giving an estimate of their age based on the layers of ice. The paleothermometers developed from these data assume highly questionable statistical comparisons between peaks and valleys in temperature, which are claimed to correspond to orbital changes in the heating of the earth.
In a provocative paper concluding that only one ice sheet covered southern and central Alberta late in the uniformitarian timescale, Robert Young and others stated: The more modern understanding of glacial activity indicates that ice sheets are very dynamic. We do not needyears for each ice age or 2. One of the key assumptions in the multiple glaciation hypothesis is the astronomical model of ice ages.
By matching wiggles in variables taken from deep-sea cores, uniformitarian scientists believe they have proven the astronomical mechanism of multiple ice ages.
Is the Ice Age Biblical? Since the Flood offers a viable explanation for the Ice Age, one could expect that the Ice Age would be mentioned in the Bible.
It is possible that the book of Job, written about years or so after the Flood, may include a reference to the Ice Age in Job And the frost of heaven, who gives it birth? The waters harden like stone, and the surface of the deep is frozen. The reason the Ice Age is not directly discussed in the Bible is probably because the Scandinavian ice sheet and mountain ice caps were farther north than the region where the Bible was written.
Only an increase in the snow coverage of Mt. Hermon and possibly more frequent snowfalls on the high areas of the Middle East would have been evident to those living in Palestine. There are substantial difficulties in interpreting these rocks as from ancient ice ages. This mechanism is gigantic submarine landslides that occurred during the Genesis Flood.
The Mystery of the Woolly Mammoths Millions of woolly mammoth bones, tusks, and a few carcasses have been found frozen in the surface sediments of Siberia, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory of Canada—a major mystery of uniformitarian paleoclimate. The woolly mammoths were part of a Northern Hemisphere community of animals that lived and died during the post-Flood Ice Age.
And there must have been sufficient time for the mammoths to have repopulated these regions after the Flood. The post-Flood Ice Age provides an explanation for the mystery of the woolly mammoths, as well as many other Ice Age mysteries. Large dust drift to the top of a house during the dust bowl era in the Midwest. The mammoths spread into these northern areas during early and middle Ice Age time because summers were cooler and winters warmer.
The areas were unglaciated just the mountains glaciated and a rich grassland. However, late in the Ice Age, winter temperatures turned colder and the climate drier with strong wind storms.
Ice Core Dating
The mammoths died by the millions and were buried by dust, which later froze, preserving the mammoths. Severe dust storms that produce tall dust drifts Figure 9 can also explain a number of the secondary mysteries, such as some carcasses that show evidence of suffocation in a generally standing position, and how they become entombed into rock-hard permafrost for a more complete treatment of this subject, please see my book, Frozen in Time.
Map of ice sheet and glacial Lake Missoula drawn by Mark Wolfe At the peak of the Ice Age, a finger of the ice sheet in western Canada and the northwest United States filled up the valleys of northern Idaho. A huge lake 2, feet m deep was formed in the valleys of western Montana.
This was glacial Lake Missoula Figure In the course of time, the lake burst and emptied in a few days, causing an immense flood several hundred feet deep that carved out canyons and produced many flood features from eastern Washington into northwest Oregon Figure This flood can help us understand the global Flood.
Interestingly, the Lake Missoula flood was rejected for 40 years despite tremendous evidence because of the anti-biblical bias in historical science. They postulate 40 to at the peak of their last ice age, with perhaps hundreds more from previous ice ages. However, the evidence is substantial that there was only one gigantic Lake Missoula flood, with possibly several minor floods afterward.