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SITE NAME: Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra DATE OF Sungai Mentilin Waterfalls ( m), Pancaro Raya and Picuran Gading Waterfalls, Squad (Satuan Tugas Penanggulangan Kebakaran), comprising of .. that can be found in the three Parks: GLNP: accommodation, restaurant. SDR Satia Djaya Raya (now defunct logging concession company) pulai Alstonia (Apocynaceae) PUSDALKARHUTLA Pusat Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan . 9 be clearly observed on satellite images dating from this period. to Jambi at ; arrive Jambi , check in at Hotel Tepian Ratu. Main · Videos; Axe throwing calgary speed dating kebakaran hotel meninting raya dating · dating game shows in china · piel grasosa yahoo dating · desene.

This habitat has few endemics, probably due to the fact that most areas are less than 11, years old. According to Rieley and Achmad- Shahplants found in tropical peat swamp forest are usually restricted to this type of habitat. In spite of this, however, few species are endemic to the peat swamp forest of a single country.

The authors list seven species, all of which are restricted to either Thailand or Malaysia. Following Wyatt-Smith andIbrahim and Chong regard this forest as uniquely adapted to waterlogging, poor nutrients and high acidity of the soil.

They add that very few of the tree species are found outside this habitat, but according to Cornerfloristics do not bear this out. They list 50 species for the Kuala Langat peat swamp forest in Peninsular Malaysia, but at least 38 of these occur, apparently indiscriminately, in freshwater swamp forests of Johore Corner, Tree species diversity for Southeast Asian lowland forests vary significantly, among others depending on location, habitat and plot size.

Compared to dry lowland rain forest, however, species diversity of peat swamp forests is relatively low. In Sarawak and Brunei, a total of tree species occur in dry lowland forest while a total of only tree species have been recorded in peat swamp forests Whitmore, Nevertheless, vegetation of lowland peat swamps in Southeast Asia may be diverse, with communities having up to plant species e.

At the other end of the spectrum are species-poor communities dominated by one or only a few species, for example, the Combretocarpus rotundatus dominated central domes in Sarawak described by Whitmoreor degradation seres described by Giesen in South Kalimantan.

Examples of species diversity in Southeast Asian peat swamp forests: Disturbed mixed peat swamp forest in South Kalimantan: Giesen and van Balen a noted species in a rapid survey of peat swamp forests on Pulau Padang, Riau, with tree species varying from 17 padang or pole forest to 37 mixed peat swamp forest along transects of m.

Total species diversity ranged from 94 in the mixed peat swamp forest to 37 in the padang forest. Calophyllum soulattri, Campnosperma coriaceum, Gonystylus macrophyllus, Palaquium hexandrum, Shorea uliginosa.

Herbs were dominated by Asplenium nidus, Crinum asiaticum, Gleichenia linearis, Lygodium sp. Peat swamp forests are often regarded as being low in biodiversity. Some fish species are unique to this habitat and can be regarded as threatened due habitat loss.

Although much peat swamp forest has been lost to logging and fire, it remains the dominant habitat in most of the current range of the false gavial Tomistoma schlegelii, which is found only in Sumatra, Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia and is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red Data List Bezuijden et al.

It is also the preferred habitat of the hairy nosed otter Lutra sumatrana, Storm s stork Ciconia stormi, white-winged wood-duck Cairina scutulata, grey-headed fish-eagle Haliaeetus ichthyophaga, and the largest remaining habitat for Bornean populations of orangutan Pongo pygmaeus Meijaard, Sumatran swamp forests The first studies on Sumatran peat swamp forests were carried out in the s by the foresters van BodegomBoon and Sewandono, who mainly worked in what is now Riau province.

Their papers record general observations on the ecology and management of logging concessions. Sewandono noted that forests decreased in stature when proceeding from the periphery towards the centre of a peat dome, with species such as dipterocarps and Palaquium decreasing and Calophyllum and Tristania increasing in abundance. He also noted that central areas of islands in the Bengkalis region were characterised by an abundance of Eugenia s, Tristania, Calophyllum species, Tetramerista glabra, Campnosperma and Shorea species, with sedges dominating the undergrowth.

Most of these latter areas had stunted trees, although according to Sewandono, there did not appear to be a link with peat depth. This landmark study focused on a wide range of aspects of peat swamp and freshwater swamp ecology, including soils, vegetation and fauna see 1. Detailed studies have been also carried out in peat swamps in Padang Sugihan NP in South Sumatra and Pulau Padang in Riau by Bradywho mainly focused on peat development processes and models of peat accumulation.

Some rapid ecological surveys were carried out in Sumatran peat swamp forests in by Giesen and Giesen and van Balen a, b. In their overview of peat swamp forest vegetation, Rieley and Achmad-Shah note that tree species common to all peat swamp forests are in decreasing order of abundance Garcinia spp. With most of the remaining peat swamp forests occurring in Indonesia and Malaysia, developments in these two countries is particularly pertinent to the conservation and sustainable use of these ecosystems.

Of thehectares remaining in Peninsular Malaysia, more thanhectares is found in Pahang state, mostly in one contiguous area. Indonesian swamp forests Most of western Indonesia s 2 swamp forests have not fared well during the past decades, and much has disappeared, either being converted for agriculture esp. The sale of timber and logs from clear-felled areas was usually more than sufficient for the following investment, for example, in plantation crops such as Acacia or oil palm, and subsequent failure of these ventures did not result in bankruptcy of the companies involved.

The Forestry Department has just completed a round of evaluation of HTI estates and will cancel the concessions of those considered to be unviable. A large number are expected to be affected. After a first round of selective logging by the HPH, these forests have usually been subjected to continued rounds of illegal logging, leading to severe degradation and often to repeated fires.

Once an area is severely degraded, the HPHs often request a change of status of the area to that of HTI, after which the area is clear-felled and planted with estate crops. On the whole, protection is limited and widespread poaching of timber resources is rampant in all reserves, all of which have also suffered from fires.

Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra

This used to be a problem during the Suharto era, but has increased significantly sincewith the advent of decentralisation. Bymost of the logging concession companies have discontinued operations as the resource has been depleted, and the logging industry is now largely the realm of rogue companies. Peat swamp forests most of which had the status limited production forest HPT or peat protection forest HLG have been severely degraded, converted e.

A furtherhectares of former peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest were located in gazetted reserves, but much had already been degraded or disappeared altogether. As noted above, illegal logging has increased significantly reportedly six fold sinceand as a result it is expected that very little intact swamp forest remains outside the Berbak NP area, and even that has been affected see below.

Since the early s, widespread wildfires have added a new dimension to peat swamp management, and according to Tacconia total ofhectares of peat swamp and freshwater swamp forest burnt in Sumatra alone during the fires. Berbak NP is located in the coastal zone of Jambi Province, Sumatra, and extends over an area of approximatelyhectares Figure 1.

Berbak forms part of the vast alluvial coastal plain of eastern Sumatra, that is assumed to have formed about 5, years BP. Evidence indicates that sea levels have dropped about two metres during the past 5, years, with sediments mainly supplied by the Batanghari River accumulating along the accreting coastline.

On the highly weathered sediments, peat has formed, with an average age of about 4, years, and in some areas with a depth of more than 20 metres Scholtz, Berbak is very flat, and at no point is the elevation more than about 15 metres. Berbak is mainly drained by the Air Hitam Laut River system and its main tributaries the Simpang Kubu and the Simpang Melaka, which lie almost entirely within the park.

These are blackwater systems, draining peat domes, that have a ph of and are naturally oligotrophic. The Benuh River, which forms the southern boundary of the park, also drains peat dome areas and is similar to the aforementioned rivers. The Air Hitam Dalam River to the northwest differs from the other rivers in the park as it also receives floodwaters 5 from the Batanghari River that are markedly richer in silt and nutrients.

Since then, however, two major changes have taken place. These areas were later degazetted and replaced by extensions on the landward side that included additional peat swamp habitat. Secondly, large fires mainly in the mids lead to the loss of significant areas of peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest see chapter 2leading to large areas being colonized by secondary and pioneer plant species.

Riparian vegetation attains a height of metres, while swamp forest is usually metres tall, with occasional emergents. In the central Air Hitam Laut region, the riparian forest is fringed by a zone of Pandanus helicopus rasauwhich may be anything from a few metres wide to a wide zone choking the entire river and preventing river transport.

Aquatic vegetation is generally absent in the Air Hitam Laut area, apart from free-floating Hanguana malayana 6 bakungwhich forms dense mats that as with the pandans may choke the entire river.

Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra

In some areas small patches of bladderwort Utricularia exoleta occur, while in burnt areas sedges mainly Thoracostachyum and Scleria species and grasses may abound. Nypa fruticans occurs along the Air Hitam Laut until about metres upstream of the confluence with the Simpang Melaka, where it gives way quite abruptly to Pandanus helicopus.

Pandanus helicopus and Hanguana malayana both occur in the Air Hitam Dalam area, but are much less common and do not form impenetrable barriers such as along the Air Hitam Laut. Seasonally, waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes eceng gondok is found, being transported into the system by inflowing waters from the Batanghari River. Riparian forests along the Air Hitam Dalam are very different from that of the Air Hitam Laut species found along the former include trees such as Barringtonia racemosa, Barringtonia reticulata, Cerbera odollam, Dillenia excelsa, Elaeocarpus spp.

On the whole, vegetation in the Air Hitam Dalam region is much richer in species than the Air Hitam Laut region, and this is also reflected in freshwater swamp forests and peat swamp forests. In general, freshwater swamp forest at Berbak is characterised by the presence of large pulai Alstonia penumatophora trees, along with a host of tree species including Antidesma montanum, Baccaurea bracteata, Blumeodendron tokbrae and an abundance of Licuala paludosa palms.

In moderately deep peat areas, punak Tetramerista glabra is common, along with bengkal Neolamarckia cadamba. Tree species common to both freshwater swamp forest and peat swamp forest are Koompassia malaccensis, Diospyros bantamensis and Stemonurus secundiflorus. Mammals recorded at Berbak include Sumatran rhino Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Malay tapir Tapirus indicus, Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris and sun bear Helarctos malayanus.

Apart from these four resorts, a network of guard posts pos jaga were also established, notably at Simpang Melaka and Simpang Kanan. It was recognised as Indonesia s first Ramsar wetland of international importance, on 8 Apriland was the target of several management-oriented projects in the mids mainly focusing on sustainable bufferzone development.

Under the new ministerial decree on forestry No. At the same time, two large fires had significantly affected the core of the park: According to the report on this study, fire has changed the properties of the peat swamp forest ecosystem in Berbak. Closed canopy of tall trees with lower vegetation on the forest floor has been replaced by a mosaic of open patches of burnt stands dominated by pioneer species consisting of grass and shrubs.

Regeneration of pioneer species has been detected by the emergence of several typical pioneer species in peat swamp forest such as the occurrence of Macaranga. Repeated and frequent fire events will eventually alter the ecosystem in the direction of a grass swamp ecosystem or open secondary swamp forest. It goes on to describe the large, central burnt area along the Air Hitam Laut, which was estimated at around 12, ha.

According to Lubisof theha of peatland in Berbak and the surrounding area i. From these, the following emerges see Figure 2.

The image is too unclear to conclusively assess disturbance along the central AHL area. Black line indicates approximate boundary of Berbak NP.

Note the ongoing fire at Sungai Aur N. It would appear that between and August fig. An enlarged black-and-white detail of the image 16 May adapted from is provided in Figure 2. This image on which the approximate area burnt in is indicated by means of a thick black line clearly shows that the area that was later burnt had a finer grained vegetation, indicating smaller canopy size, than the surrounding vegetation.

Most peat swamps have evidence of concentric forest zones, of which the innermost in extreme cases comprise stunted trees commonly of markedly xeromorphic aspect Whitmore, Sewandono discovered a similar phenomenon when studying the peat swamps of Bengkalis Island, off the coast of Riau. He found that when heading inland from the coast, the cover of herbaceous terrestrial species and small palms increased, including species such as Zingiberaceae, Cyperaceae, Araceae, Eleiodoxa Salacca conferta, Licuala, some rattans, Cyrtostachys lakka and Pandanus.

Where trees had been felled there was an abundance of Cyperaceae and ferns. In the middle of the islands he discovered many dead and dying trees, that were often diminutive in size, and a dense undergrowth mainly consisting of sedges.

Sewandono recorded no evidence of fires, nor did the phenomenon appear to be linked with increasing peat depth. Since then, studies have indicated that extreme nutrient deficiency in central parts of ombrogenous peat domes can lead to such patterns Whitmore, However, as this central part of the AHL straddles the river system this seems an unlikely explanation, and a more logical explanation for the observed pattern is that illegal logging had degraded the central AHL forests already byand that logs were being transported out of the National Park via the logging trail.

An enlargement of this image fig.

These are clear signs of disturbance and human activities in the park s core area, and are likely to be directly responsible for the occurrence of the catastrophic fires. The cleared rectangle is already showing signs of revegetation most of it is pale green in colourand this may have been cleared seasons before August FIGURE 2.

In all three areas, known burnt sites as previously identified on the satellite images were visited, and rapid surveys were conducted at each site.

This involved recording the soil type, indications of recent flooding e. Plant species not immediately recognised were photographed and a herbarium specimen collected 72 specimens in all, some in duplicate. Specimens were later dried at the laboratory of the Hydrology Department of the University of Jambi, and taken to Bogor for identification.

For the latter, use was made of the Flora Malesiana esp. The remainder 52 specimens were submitted to the Herbarium Bogoriense for identification. A record was also kept of bird species observed at each site, as it was hypothesized that they might play a role in seed dispersal.

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A photographic record was made of each field trip, especially of the regenerating burnt areas and of key plant species, and a CD with digital photographs was provided to the head of Berbak NP Mr. Istantothe project s coordinator in Jambi Mr. Unfortunately, exact locations latlongs of each site surveyed could not be provided due to malfunctioning of the consultant s GPS from the first day onward.

However, as most burnt areas are easily identifiable on recent satellite images, these sites can be indicated with an acceptable degree of accuracy. In all, plant species belonging to 57 families and representing genera were identified during the rapid surveys Annex 3. It must be noted, however, that the number of species recorded at site 8, and to a lesser extent at site 9, were not exhaustive but indicative.

On the whole, there is little difference in species diversity between burnt sites and riparian vegetation in the Air Hitam Laut and Simpang Melaka area, while in the Air Hitam Dalam area riparian vegetation is about twice as biodiverse Figure 2.

There is a marked difference in diversity between Air Hitam Laut and Simpang Melaka on the one side, and Air Hitam Dalam on the other side, and the latter is times as diverse, depending on the condition of the site. These include 11 tree species, 6 climbers, 3 ferns, 3 sedges 2 palms and 2 grasses, listed below in Table 2. Burnt areas are often characterised by a prolific growth of a limited number of species.

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In the downstream section of the large burnt area along the Air Hitam Laut, near Simpang Kubu, secondary vegetation is dominated by Macaranga and palms esp. Burnt areas along the Air Hitam Dalam are characterised by the presence of many saplings, and dense thickets of bamboo and Zingiberaceae. Habit Species 1 Trees a. Mallotus muticus Coccoceras borneense i. Neolamarckia cadamba Anthocephalus indicus j. Syzygium Eugenia cerina 2 Shrubs a. Melastoma malabathricum 3 Climbers a. Uncaria glabrata 4 Palms a.

Of thehectares remaining in Peninsular Malaysia, more thanhectares is found in Pahang state, mostly in one contiguous area. Indonesian swamp forests Most of western Indonesia s 2 swamp forests have not fared well during the past decades, and much has disappeared, either being converted for agriculture esp. The sale of timber and logs from clear-felled areas was usually more than sufficient for the following investment, for example, in plantation crops such as Acacia or oil palm, and subsequent failure of these ventures did not result in bankruptcy of the companies involved.

The Forestry Department has just completed a round of evaluation of HTI estates and will cancel the concessions of those considered to be unviable. A large number are expected to be affected. After a first round of selective logging by the HPH, these forests have usually been subjected to continued rounds of illegal logging, leading to severe degradation and often to repeated fires. Once an area is severely degraded, the HPHs often request a change of status of the area to that of HTI, after which the area is clear-felled and planted with estate crops.

On the whole, protection is limited and widespread poaching of timber resources is rampant in all reserves, all of which have also suffered from fires. This used to be a problem during the Suharto era, but has increased significantly sincewith the advent of decentralisation. Bymost of the logging concession companies have discontinued operations as the resource has been depleted, and the logging industry is now largely the realm of rogue companies.

Peat swamp forests most of which had the status limited production forest HPT or peat protection forest HLG have been severely degraded, converted e. A furtherhectares of former peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest were located in gazetted reserves, but much had already been degraded or disappeared altogether. As noted above, illegal logging has increased significantly reportedly six fold sinceand as a result it is expected that very little intact swamp forest remains outside the Berbak NP area, and even that has been affected see below.

Since the early s, widespread wildfires have added a new dimension to peat swamp management, and according to Tacconia total ofhectares of peat swamp and freshwater swamp forest burnt in Sumatra alone during the fires. Berbak NP is located in the coastal zone of Jambi Province, Sumatra, and extends over an area of approximatelyhectares Figure 1. Berbak forms part of the vast alluvial coastal plain of eastern Sumatra, that is assumed to have formed about 5, years BP.

Evidence indicates that sea levels have dropped about two metres during the past 5, years, with sediments mainly supplied by the Batanghari River accumulating along the accreting coastline. On the highly weathered sediments, peat has formed, with an average age of about 4, years, and in some areas with a depth of more than 20 metres Scholtz, Berbak is very flat, and at no point is the elevation more than about 15 metres.

Berbak is mainly drained by the Air Hitam Laut River system and its main tributaries the Simpang Kubu and the Simpang Melaka, which lie almost entirely within the park. These are blackwater systems, draining peat domes, that have a ph of and are naturally oligotrophic.

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The Benuh River, which forms the southern boundary of the park, also drains peat dome areas and is similar to the aforementioned rivers. The Air Hitam Dalam River to the northwest differs from the other rivers in the park as it also receives floodwaters 5 from the Batanghari River that are markedly richer in silt and nutrients. Since then, however, two major changes have taken place. These areas were later degazetted and replaced by extensions on the landward side that included additional peat swamp habitat.

Secondly, large fires mainly in the mids lead to the loss of significant areas of peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest see chapter 2leading to large areas being colonized by secondary and pioneer plant species. Riparian vegetation attains a height of metres, while swamp forest is usually metres tall, with occasional emergents. In the central Air Hitam Laut region, the riparian forest is fringed by a zone of Pandanus helicopus rasauwhich may be anything from a few metres wide to a wide zone choking the entire river and preventing river transport.

Aquatic vegetation is generally absent in the Air Hitam Laut area, apart from free-floating Hanguana malayana 6 bakungwhich forms dense mats that as with the pandans may choke the entire river.

In some areas small patches of bladderwort Utricularia exoleta occur, while in burnt areas sedges mainly Thoracostachyum and Scleria species and grasses may abound. Nypa fruticans occurs along the Air Hitam Laut until about metres upstream of the confluence with the Simpang Melaka, where it gives way quite abruptly to Pandanus helicopus.

Pandanus helicopus and Hanguana malayana both occur in the Air Hitam Dalam area, but are much less common and do not form impenetrable barriers such as along the Air Hitam Laut. Seasonally, waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes eceng gondok is found, being transported into the system by inflowing waters from the Batanghari River. Riparian forests along the Air Hitam Dalam are very different from that of the Air Hitam Laut species found along the former include trees such as Barringtonia racemosa, Barringtonia reticulata, Cerbera odollam, Dillenia excelsa, Elaeocarpus spp.

On the whole, vegetation in the Air Hitam Dalam region is much richer in species than the Air Hitam Laut region, and this is also reflected in freshwater swamp forests and peat swamp forests. In general, freshwater swamp forest at Berbak is characterised by the presence of large pulai Alstonia penumatophora trees, along with a host of tree species including Antidesma montanum, Baccaurea bracteata, Blumeodendron tokbrae and an abundance of Licuala paludosa palms.

In moderately deep peat areas, punak Tetramerista glabra is common, along with bengkal Neolamarckia cadamba. Tree species common to both freshwater swamp forest and peat swamp forest are Koompassia malaccensis, Diospyros bantamensis and Stemonurus secundiflorus. Mammals recorded at Berbak include Sumatran rhino Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Malay tapir Tapirus indicus, Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris and sun bear Helarctos malayanus.

Apart from these four resorts, a network of guard posts pos jaga were also established, notably at Simpang Melaka and Simpang Kanan. It was recognised as Indonesia s first Ramsar wetland of international importance, on 8 Apriland was the target of several management-oriented projects in the mids mainly focusing on sustainable bufferzone development. Under the new ministerial decree on forestry No.

At the same time, two large fires had significantly affected the core of the park: According to the report on this study, fire has changed the properties of the peat swamp forest ecosystem in Berbak.

Closed canopy of tall trees with lower vegetation on the forest floor has been replaced by a mosaic of open patches of burnt stands dominated by pioneer species consisting of grass and shrubs. Regeneration of pioneer species has been detected by the emergence of several typical pioneer species in peat swamp forest such as the occurrence of Macaranga.

Repeated and frequent fire events will eventually alter the ecosystem in the direction of a grass swamp ecosystem or open secondary swamp forest. It goes on to describe the large, central burnt area along the Air Hitam Laut, which was estimated at around 12, ha.

According to Lubisof theha of peatland in Berbak and the surrounding area i. From these, the following emerges see Figure 2. The image is too unclear to conclusively assess disturbance along the central AHL area. Black line indicates approximate boundary of Berbak NP. Note the ongoing fire at Sungai Aur N. It would appear that between and August fig. An enlarged black-and-white detail of the image 16 May adapted from is provided in Figure 2.

This image on which the approximate area burnt in is indicated by means of a thick black line clearly shows that the area that was later burnt had a finer grained vegetation, indicating smaller canopy size, than the surrounding vegetation. Most peat swamps have evidence of concentric forest zones, of which the innermost in extreme cases comprise stunted trees commonly of markedly xeromorphic aspect Whitmore, Sewandono discovered a similar phenomenon when studying the peat swamps of Bengkalis Island, off the coast of Riau.

He found that when heading inland from the coast, the cover of herbaceous terrestrial species and small palms increased, including species such as Zingiberaceae, Cyperaceae, Araceae, Eleiodoxa Salacca conferta, Licuala, some rattans, Cyrtostachys lakka and Pandanus.

Where trees had been felled there was an abundance of Cyperaceae and ferns. In the middle of the islands he discovered many dead and dying trees, that were often diminutive in size, and a dense undergrowth mainly consisting of sedges. Sewandono recorded no evidence of fires, nor did the phenomenon appear to be linked with increasing peat depth.

Since then, studies have indicated that extreme nutrient deficiency in central parts of ombrogenous peat domes can lead to such patterns Whitmore, However, as this central part of the AHL straddles the river system this seems an unlikely explanation, and a more logical explanation for the observed pattern is that illegal logging had degraded the central AHL forests already byand that logs were being transported out of the National Park via the logging trail. An enlargement of this image fig. These are clear signs of disturbance and human activities in the park s core area, and are likely to be directly responsible for the occurrence of the catastrophic fires.

The cleared rectangle is already showing signs of revegetation most of it is pale green in colourand this may have been cleared seasons before August FIGURE 2.

In all three areas, known burnt sites as previously identified on the satellite images were visited, and rapid surveys were conducted at each site. This involved recording the soil type, indications of recent flooding e. Plant species not immediately recognised were photographed and a herbarium specimen collected 72 specimens in all, some in duplicate. Specimens were later dried at the laboratory of the Hydrology Department of the University of Jambi, and taken to Bogor for identification.

For the latter, use was made of the Flora Malesiana esp. The remainder 52 specimens were submitted to the Herbarium Bogoriense for identification. A record was also kept of bird species observed at each site, as it was hypothesized that they might play a role in seed dispersal. A photographic record was made of each field trip, especially of the regenerating burnt areas and of key plant species, and a CD with digital photographs was provided to the head of Berbak NP Mr.

Istantothe project s coordinator in Jambi Mr. Unfortunately, exact locations latlongs of each site surveyed could not be provided due to malfunctioning of the consultant s GPS from the first day onward.

However, as most burnt areas are easily identifiable on recent satellite images, these sites can be indicated with an acceptable degree of accuracy. In all, plant species belonging to 57 families and representing genera were identified during the rapid surveys Annex 3. It must be noted, however, that the number of species recorded at site 8, and to a lesser extent at site 9, were not exhaustive but indicative. On the whole, there is little difference in species diversity between burnt sites and riparian vegetation in the Air Hitam Laut and Simpang Melaka area, while in the Air Hitam Dalam area riparian vegetation is about twice as biodiverse Figure 2.

There is a marked difference in diversity between Air Hitam Laut and Simpang Melaka on the one side, and Air Hitam Dalam on the other side, and the latter is times as diverse, depending on the condition of the site.

These include 11 tree species, 6 climbers, 3 ferns, 3 sedges 2 palms and 2 grasses, listed below in Table 2. Burnt areas are often characterised by a prolific growth of a limited number of species. In the downstream section of the large burnt area along the Air Hitam Laut, near Simpang Kubu, secondary vegetation is dominated by Macaranga and palms esp.

Burnt areas along the Air Hitam Dalam are characterised by the presence of many saplings, and dense thickets of bamboo and Zingiberaceae. Habit Species 1 Trees a. Mallotus muticus Coccoceras borneense i. Neolamarckia cadamba Anthocephalus indicus j. Syzygium Eugenia cerina 2 Shrubs a. Melastoma malabathricum 3 Climbers a. Uncaria glabrata 4 Palms a. Pholidocarpus sumatranus 5 Sedges a.

Thoracostachyum sumatranum 6 Grasses a. Paspalum conjugatum 7 Ferns a. The burnt areas varied widely in terms of total vegetation cover and tree cover Annex 3.

Most trees found in the burnt areas appeared to be newly established esp.

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Alstonia and Macarangabut it was also observed that Mallotus CoccocerasCombretocarpus and Eugenia species were resprouting from previously established and partly charred trunks. Although most of the Alstonia specimens seen appeared to have established from seed stock, it was observed that this species is also capable of resprouting from fire-damaged trunks. Both of the palm species found in burnt areas Licuala paludosa and Pholidocarpus sumatranus appear able to withstand fires, and especially large specimens of Pholidocarpus were observed remaining in several former peat swamp areas now virtually devoid of tree cover due to repeated fires.

Annex 4 bird observations lists 45 species observed during field surveys. Of these 45 species, almost half 20 species were observed in the burnt areas. Species found in the burnt areas are predominantly invertebrate esp. This is not vastly dissimilar to the pattern for all habitats combined Figure 2.

River transport is often blocked by Pandanus and Hanguana, that in some areas may form impenetrable barriers e. Changes since During surveys conducted by the consultant in December Giesen, along the Air Hitam Dalam, lower Air Hitam Laut and Simpang Melaka, there was little sign of tree felling along the last two rivers, but evidence of significant tree felling going on along the Air Hitam Dalam.

At the same time, there was no evidence of burning or wildfires occurring or having occurred in the area. This has taken a dramatic turn for the worse since then, however, as there is evidence for illegal logging in almost all areas see belowand there are vast tracts of former forest that have been burnt during the past decade see 2. Illegal logging Illegal logging appears to be nothing short of rampant throughout the Park.

Some camps have only one pondok, while some have as many as six or seven. Most of these camps are used for illegal logging activities, although they are also used by fisherfolk and jelutung collectors. An exception are the three camps in the burnt area e. Sawn timber of kempas Koompassia malaccensis, meranti Shorea spp. Similarly, timber poaching was also observed on October along the Air Hitam Dalam, with two rafts of timber one consisting of sawn meranti, the other consisting of ramin lying ready for transport out of the Park.

The forests along the AHD have a very open canopy, and everywhere there are signs of entry into the forest trails, slip marks, some sawn remains of timber. There were few signs of poaching of timber along the lower course of the Air Hitam Laut, apart from some trees having been felled near the Pos Jaga guardpost at Simpang Melaka. However, as there are numerous canals entering into the swamp forest from the coast, there is no direct need for poachers to use the AHL as a conduit for poached timber.

Recent satellite images e. Evidence of logging in burnt areas? No sign of logging was found in the surveyed burnt areas, but this absence of evidence does not mean evidence of absence, as such signs can easily be obscured by the large amounts of unburnt fuel and prolific growth of secondary vegetation, especially of ferns and shrubs. Also, moving around in such areas is difficult to very difficult, as large amounts of fallen tree trunks, often completely overgrown by ferns, provide a significant obstacle to any kind of movement.

Large burnt area near Simpang T As indicated in 2. Soil at Simpang T was found to consist primarily of clay, with some shallow? In addition to regrowth of secondary vegetation, quite a number of dead trees remained standing at Simpang T see Photo 12, Annex 7.

These appear to be small and straight, supporting satellite image evidence that trees in this area were small in stature. There is no doubt that the extensive open spaces now occupied by the floating grass-mats in the lake districts of Borneo were once swamp forest areas.