Thermoluminescence dating - Wikipedia
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Italian was progressively made an official language of most of the Italian states predating unification, slowly replacing Latin, even when ruled by foreign powers like Spain in the Kingdom of Naplesor Austria in the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetiaeven though the masses kept speaking primarily their local vernaculars.
Italian was also one of the many recognised languages in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city because the cities, until recently, were thought of as city-states.
Those dialects now have considerable variety. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout Italy, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases: In contrast to the Gallo-Italic linguistic panorama of northern Italythe Italo-Dalmatian Neapolitan and its related dialects were largely unaffected by the Franco- Occitan influences introduced to Italy mainly by bards from France during the Middle Agesbut after the Norman conquest of southern ItalySicily became the first Italian land to adopt Occitan lyric moods and words in poetry.
Even in the case of Northern Italian languages, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. The economic might and relatively advanced development of Tuscany at the time Late Middle Ages gave its language weight, though Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life, and Ligurian or Genoese remained in use in maritime trade alongside the Mediterranean.
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The increasing political and cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of the rise of the Banco MediciHumanismand the Renaissance made its dialect, or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. Renaissance[ edit ] The Renaissance era, known as il Rinascimento in Italian, was seen as a time of "rebirth", which is the literal meaning of both renaissance from French and rinascimento Italian.
Pietro Bembo was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language from the Tuscan dialect, as a literary medium, codifying the language for standard modern usage.
During this time, long-existing beliefs stemming from the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church began to be understood from new a perspectives as humanists —individuals who placed emphasis on the human body and its full potential—began to shift focus from the church to human beings themselves.
The ideals of the Renaissance were evident throughout the Protestant Reformationwhich took place simultaneously with the Renaissance. After Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church, he founded what was then understood to be a sect of Catholicismlater referred to as Lutheranism. Previously, the Bible was only written in Latinbut after the Bible was translated, it could be understood in many other languages, including Italian.
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The Italian language was able to spread even more with the help of Luther and the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg. The Inland Northern accent was lampooned on the television show Saturday Night Live 's " Bill Swerski's Superfans " segments, though the accent's shift may be reversing in certain communities. Midland American English Between the traditional American dialect areas of the "North" and "South" is what linguists have long called the "Midland" encompassing states situated in the lower Midwest, beginning west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Modern Midland speech is transitional between a presence and absence of the cot—caught merger. Historically, Pennsylvania was a home of the Midland dialect; however, this state of early English-speaking settlers has now largely split off into new dialect regions, with distinct Philadelphia and Pittsburgh dialects documented since the middle of the twentieth century.
Western American English A generalized Midland speech continues westward until becoming a somewhat internally diverse Western American English that unites the entire western half of the country, mostly unified by a firm cot—caught merger and a conservatively backed pronunciation of the long oh sound in goat, toe, show, etc.
Western speech itself contains such advanced sub-types as Pacific Northwest English and California Englishwith the native-speaker English of Mexican Americans also being a sub-type primarily of the Western dialect.
The island state of Hawaiithough primarily English-speaking, is also home to a creole language known commonly as Hawaiian Pidginand some Hawaii residents speak English with a Pidgin-influenced accent.
Other varieties[ edit ] Although no longer region-specific,  African-American Vernacular Englishwhich remains the native variety of most working- and middle-class African Americanshas a close relationship to Southern dialects and has greatly influenced everyday speech of many Americans, including hip hop culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans have also developed native-speaker varieties of English.
General American and North American English regional phonology Compared with English as spoken in EnglandNorth American English  is more homogeneous, and any North American accent that exhibits a majority of the most common phonological features is known as " General American ". This is commonly done by measurement of the alpha radioactivity the uranium and thorium content and the potassium content K is a beta and gamma emitter of the sample material.
Often the gamma radiation field at the position of the sample material is measured, or it may be calculated from the alpha radioactivity and potassium content of the sample environment, and the cosmic ray dose is added in.
Once all components of the radiation field are determined, the accumulated dose from the thermoluminescence measurements is divided by the dose accumulating each year, to obtain the years since the zeroing event. Relation to radiocarbon dating[ edit ] Thermoluminescence dating is used for material where radiocarbon dating is not available, like sediments.
Its use is now common in the authentication of old ceramic wares, for which it gives the approximate date of the last firing. An example of this can be seen in Rink and Bartoll, Thermoluminescence dating was modified for use as a passive sand migration analysis tool by Keizars, et al.
Relation to other luminescence dating methods[ edit ] Optically stimulated luminescence dating is a related measurement method which replaces heating with exposure to intense light.Skills for Healthy Romantic Relationships - Joanne Davila - TEDxSBU
The sample material is illuminated with a very bright source of green or blue light for quartz or infrared light for potassium feldspars. Ultraviolet light emitted by the sample is detected for measurement.