The Earliest New Testament Manuscripts
The Jews did not consider them canonical and thus did not quote from them in the New Testament. On the other hand, the Bible of the early Christian church was. All New Testament manuscripts differ from each other to some degree To date, more than one million quotations of the NT by the church. A careful consideration of the likely dates at which the New Testament documents and if possible second century, dates for the autographs [original manuscripts]. There are nearly quotations of 1 Corinthians in Irenaeus, Clement of.
If there had been a forgery, they too would have all had to have been changed. But possibly the greatest attestation for the authority of our New Testament are the masses of quotations taken from its pages by the early church fathers.
Dean Burgon in his research found in all 86, quotes from the early church fathers In fact, there are 32, quotations from the New Testament found in writings from before the council of Nicea in A.
Harold Greenlee points out that the quotations of the scripture in the works of the early church writers are so extensive that the New Testament could virtually be reconstructed from them without the use of New Testament manuscripts. Sir David Dalrymple sought to do this, and from the second and third century writings of the church fathers he found the entire New Testament quoted except for eleven verses 14! Thus, we could throw the New Testament manuscripts away and still reconstruct it with the simple help of these letters.
Some examples of these are Clement 95 A. Thus the manuscript evidence at our disposal today gives us over 24, manuscripts with which to corroborate our current New Testament.
Dating the New Testament - Early Church Fathers
The earliest of these manuscripts have now been dated earlier than A. On top of that we have 15, early translations of the New Testament, and over 2, lectionaries. And finally we have scriptural quotations in the letters of the early Church fathers with which we could almost reproduce the New Testament if we so wished.
This indeed is substantial manuscript evidence for the New Testament. We know from the historical record that by the end of the seventh century the Arabs had expanded right across North Africa and up into Spain, and east as far as India.
The Dating of the New Testament
The early 21st century saw the rise of the first textual analyst of this school in over three centuries with Gavin McGrath b. When this occurs, he adopts either a minority Byzantine reading, a reading from the ancient Vulgateor a reading attested to in the writings of an ancient Church Father in either Greek or Latin by way of quotation.
The Neo-Byzantine School considers that the doctrine of the Divine Preservation of Scripture means that God preserved the Byzantine Greek manuscripts, Latin manuscripts, and Greek and Latin church writers' citations of Scripture over time and through time. These are regarded as "a closed class of sources" i.
Textual criticism is also used by those who assert that the New Testament was written in Aramaic see Aramaic primacy. In modern translations of the Bible such as the New International Versionthe results of textual criticism have led to certain verses, words and phrases being left out or marked as not original.
Three Things to Know about New Testament Manuscripts • Richard Carrier
Previously, translations of the New Testament such as the King James Version had mostly been based on Erasmus 's redaction of the New Testament in Greek, the Textus Receptus from the 16th century based on later manuscripts. First, many early copies exist of the books of the New Testament.
In fact, the earliest fragment of a New Testament manuscript has been dated to approximately A. This finding helps to strengthen the case that the original writing which likely took place in modern day Turkey was much earlier, pushing the original date into the first century.
The first complete New Testament is Codex Sinaiticus, a manuscript found in a monastery on Mount Sinai that dates from the mid-fourth century.
Three Things to Know about New Testament Manuscripts
A second nearly-complete New Testament from the same century exists in Rome called the Codex Vaticanus. Most modern translations utilize these manuscripts along with other early finding to ensure the earliest and most accurate readings are used. Second, numerous copies exist of early New Testament manuscripts. Over 5, copies of New Testament writings in Greek have been discovered to date.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts has documented over 60 previously undiscovered manuscripts in recent years, claiming they have leads on even additional manuscripts unknown to modern scholarship.