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Latvia and Lithuania followed in October. Unlike the Baltic states, Finland started a gradual mobilisation under the guise of "additional refresher training. Assault troops thought necessary for the invasion did not begin deployment until October Operational plans made in September called for the invasion to start in November.

Viipuri and that Finland destroy all existing fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. Likewise, the delegation demanded the cession of islands in the Gulf of Finland as well as Rybachy Peninsula Finnish: The Finns would have to lease the Hanko Peninsula for thirty years and permit the Soviets to establish a military base there.

The Finns made two counteroffers whereby Finland would cede the Terijoki area to the Soviet Union, which would double the distance between Leningrad and the Finnish border, far less than the Soviets had demanded, [67] as well as the islands in the Gulf of Finland.

Shelling of Mainila On 26 Novemberan incident was reported near the Soviet village of Mainilaclose to the border with Finland. A Soviet border guard post had been shelled by an unknown party resulting, according to Soviet reports, in the deaths of four and injuries of nine border guards. Research conducted by several Finnish and Russian historians later concluded that the shelling was a false flag operation carried out from the Soviet side of the border by an NKVD unit with the purpose of providing the Soviet Union with a casus belli and a pretext to withdraw from the non-aggression pact.

In turn, the Soviet Union claimed that the Finnish response was hostile, renounced the non-aggression pact and severed diplomatic relations with Finland on 28 November. In the following years, Soviet historiography described the incident as Finnish provocation. Doubt on the official Soviet version was cast only in the late s, during the policy of glasnost. The issue continued to divide Russian historiography even after the collapse of the Soviet Union in He quotes Molotov, who commented in November on the regime-change plan to a Soviet ambassador that the new government "will not be Soviet, but one of a democratic republic.

Nobody is going to set up Soviets over there, but we hope it will be a government we can come to terms with as to ensure the security of Leningrad.

TERÄVYYSALUE - Suomen valokuvataiteen museon blogi

American historian William R. Trotter asserted that Stalin's objective was to secure Leningrad's flank from a possible German invasion through Finland.

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He stated that "the strongest argument" against a Soviet intention of full conquest is that it did not happen in either or during the Continuation War in —even though Stalin "could have done so with comparative ease. Chubaryan inno documents had been found in Russian archives that support a Soviet plan to annex Finland.

Rather, the objective was to gain Finnish territory and reinforce Soviet influence in the region. Ladoga Karelia, a large forest wilderness, did not have road networks for the modern Red Army. The Finns did not expect large-scale Soviet attacks, but the Soviets sent eight divisions, heavily supported by armour and artillery.

The th Rifle Division attacked at Lieksaand further north the 44th attacked at Kuhmo. The rd Rifle Division was deployed at Suomussalmi and ordered to cut Finland in half by advancing on the Raate road.

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The Arctic port of Petsamo was attacked by the th Mountain Rifle Division by sea and land, supported by naval gunfire. The rest had to make do with their own clothing, which for many soldiers was their normal winter clothing with a semblance of insignia added.

Finnish soldiers were skilled in cross-country skiing. The Finns dressed in layers, and the ski troopers wore a lightweight white snow cape. This snow-camouflage made the ski troopers almost invisible as the Finns executed guerrilla attacks against Soviet columns.

At the beginning of the war, Soviet tanks were painted in standard olive drab and men dressed in regular khaki uniforms. Not until late January did the Soviets paint their equipment white and issue snowsuits to their infantry. In the battle of Suomussalmithousands of Soviet soldiers died of frostbite.

The Soviet troops also lacked skill in skiing, so soldiers were restricted to movement by road and were forced to move in long columns. The Red Army lacked proper winter tents, and troops had to sleep in improvised shelters. Nordic combined skier Timo Murama is pictured. The Red Army was superior in numbers and materiel, but Finns used the advantages of speed, manoeuvre warfare and economy of force.

Particularly on the Ladoga Karelia front and during the battle of Raate roadthe Finns isolated smaller portions of numerically superior Soviet forces. With Soviet forces divided into smaller groups, the Finns dealt with them individually and attacked from all sides.

TERÄVYYSALUE - Suomen valokuvataiteen museon blogi

The men were freezing and starving and endured poor sanitary conditions. Trotter described these conditions as follows: If he refused to fight, he would be shot.

If he tried to sneak through the forest, he would freeze to death. And surrender was no option for him; Soviet propaganda had told him how the Finns would torture prisoners to death. Soviet propaganda claimed that it was as strong as or even stronger than the Maginot Line.

dag 2 schnauzer, pinscher, molosser og sennenhund

Finnish historians, for their part, have belittled the line's strength, insisting that it was mostly conventional trenches and log-covered dugouts. Many were extended in the late s. Despite these defensive preparations, even the most fortified section of the Mannerheim Line had only one reinforced-concrete bunker per kilometre. Overall, the line was weaker than similar lines in mainland Europe.

On the western side, Soviet units faced the Finnish line at Summa, near the city of Vyborgon 16 December. The Finns had built 41 reinforced-concrete bunkers in the Summa area, making the defensive line in this area stronger than anywhere else on the Karelian Isthmus. Because of a mistake in planning, the nearby Munasuo swamp had a 1-kilometre 0. The Finns remained in their trenches, allowing the Soviet tanks to move freely behind the Finnish line, as the Finns had no proper anti-tank weapons.

The Finns succeeded in repelling the main Soviet assault.

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The tanks, stranded behind enemy lines, attacked the strongpoints at random until they were eventually destroyed, 20 in all. By 22 December, the battle ended in a Finnish victory. Red Army troops suffered from poor morale and a shortage of supplies, eventually refusing to participate in more suicidal frontal attacks. The Finns lost 1, men, and the Soviets were later estimated to have lost a similar number.

dag 2 schnauzer, pinscher, molosser og sennenhund

They also had a support group of three brigadesbringing their total strength to over 30, The Soviets deployed a division for almost every road leading west to the Finnish border. The Soviets had a 3: The ensuing battle of Kollaa lasted until the end of the war.

A memorable quote, "Kollaa holds" Finnish: As before, these divisions were trapped as the more mobile Finnish units counterattacked from the north to flank the Soviet columns.

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On 19 December, the Finns temporarily ceased their assaults due to exhaustion. They were expecting reinforcements and supplies to arrive by air.

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As the Finns lacked the necessary heavy artillery equipment and were short of men, they often did not directly attack the mottis they had created; instead, they worked to eliminate only the most dangerous threats. Often the motti tactic was not applied as a strategy, but as a Finnish adaptation to the behaviour of Soviet troops under fire. Some specialist Finnish soldiers were called in to attack the mottis; the most famous of them was Major Matti Aarnioor "Motti-Matti" as he became known.

The Finns used effective guerrilla tactics, taking special advantage of their superior skiing skills and snow-white layered clothing and executing surprise ambushes and raids.

pasi vuorenmaa arabian dating

By the end of December, the Soviets decided to retreat and transfer resources to more critical fronts. Suomussalmi was a town of 4, with long lakes, wild forests and few roads.

The Finnish command believed that the Soviets would not attack here, but the Red Army committed two divisions to the Kainuu area with orders to cross the wilderness, capture the city of Oulu and effectively cut Finland in two. There were two roads leading to Suomussalmi from the frontier: The Soviet 44th and parts of the rd Rifle Division, comprising about 14, troops,[] were almost completely destroyed by a Finnish ambush as they marched along the forest road.

A small unit blocked the Soviet advance while Finnish Colonel Hjalmar Siilasvuo and his 9th Division cut off the retreat route, split the enemy force into smaller mottis, and then proceeded to destroy the remnants in detail as they retreated.

The Soviets suffered 7,—9, casualties;[] the Finnish units, Thus, the area offers more room for tank deployment, but it is sparsely populated and experiences copious snowfall. The Finns expected nothing more than raiding parties and reconnaissance patrols, but instead, the Soviets sent full divisions.

The group was placed under the command of Kurt Wallenius. In the battle of Sallathe Soviets proceeded easily to Salla, where the road forked.

On 17 December, the Soviet northern group, comprising an infantry regiment, a battalion, and a company of tanks, was outflanked by a Finnish battalion.

  • Winter War
  • Lauri Törni

The nd retreated, abandoning much of its heavy equipment and vehicles. Needless to say, building an interactive exhibition in an old railroad building requires endurance and a healthy dose of DIY attitude.

He was first from our team to get on site at Oberhafen on the evening of 5th of June. Together with his two sons Tiera Hirvonen and Karri Hirvonen, Niko worked day in, day out while camping inside the railroad docs.

Be in no doubt, this crew was a born legend on the spot. Once the walls were ready for paint, we got some help. The volunteers did an amazing job, with some even hatching from their cocoons!

When we were done with the walls, it was time to celebrate. The next day, he was all smiles. The morning after the celebrations, we met with the artistic director of the triennial, Krzysztof Candrowicz for a breakfast in the sun under the watchful gaze of Der Spiegel.

We are very grateful for him over his persistence in bringing his vision of the triennial to reality. Another person we need to applaud here is the project manager of the triennial, Dr.