Diamonds can be used to date the origin of modern plate tectonics | Ars Technica
Carbon dating is the most famous form of “radiometric dating”. By measuring the trace amounts of radioactive carbon (so named because it. About the additional text. My involvement with the initial radiocarbon dating article in the has not been addressed in the past only to learn that it was hidden away as if that would make it forever go away. . It has been replied in  (" about radiocarbon in diamonds proving that the diamonds are only thousands of years. Diamonds are the hardest naturally occurring substance known to man. need to use other radioactive decay schemes (e.g., uranium-lead) to date inclusions in .
Previous dating techniques required researchers to collect inclusions of other minerals—including garnets and zircon—from many different diamonds to obtain an age.
View Gallery This slideshow takes you through the processes Dr. Shirey uses to select natural diamonds for research and extract the sulfide inclusions from them to obtain accurate ages—often in the range of billions of years. It involves ingenious solutions to fashion the tiny diamonds into plates for study, cleave out the sulfides, separate the isotopes of rhenium and osmium by chemistry, and count the various isotopes with sophisticated laboratory instrumentation for the final age determination.
Selecting Diamonds for Study The process begins with suitable inclusion-bearing diamond crystals. As Shirey tells us, obtaining such diamonds for study is quite a challenge. Shirey designed this jig for laser cutting the diamond crystals. And they turned it out in a day or two. We brought it back to the laser cutter and set it up, and the guys that owned the laser cutter liked it so much. CL imaging reveals whether the diamond has a straightforward or more complex growth history.
It can measure differences between the carbon or nitrogen isotopes across a diamond, which can establish whether the stone has a unique geologic history and what the data from the inclusion means.
We will spotlight Dr. Preparing Diamonds for Study In this sequence of videos, Dr. Shirey explains how researchers select and prepare suitable inclusion-bearing diamonds for study.
The process begins with crystals that are polished into precisely oriented plates for analysis. Removing the Inclusion from the Diamond Selecting, documenting, and gathering analytical data on a single diamond plate might take many weeks.
At some point, though, the sulfide inclusions have to be removed from the plate for researchers to determine their age. The diamond plate sits over a pair of tungsten carbine lathe bits, which form a platform. Shirey orients the diamond plate within the cylinder so that the portion with the inclusion lies above the gap between the two lathe bits. Grooves inscribed on the cylinder base and the side of the lid help Shirey align it so that the rod is directly parallel and above the gap between the two tungsten carbide lathe bits in the cylinder base.
A sharp tap on the top of the piston with a small hammer cleaves the diamond in the plane of the sulfide inclusion, releasing it.
Mineral inclusions can tell researchers a lot about the temperature and pressure conditions in which a diamond formed, the rocks and fluids it grew from, and whether it formed at the same time as its diamond host.
Shirey also wants to determine whether the sulfide is from an eclogitic or peridotitic source rock. Peridotitic sulfides contain higher levels of nickel and lower levels of iron.
His next step is to wash and rinse the inclusion with ethanol in a tiny beaker, in preparation for weighing it in an extremely sensitive electronic balance. Perhaps Radiocarbon After Four Decades ?
Other than that, I suspect there is just papers in peer-reviewed journals. And you had assumed that it would take me only minutes to comment on your changes. You could make a section in which to list all the conferences, including the Nobel Symposium volume.
Mona Lisa Arts & Media: Diamonds are Forever
The Nobel volume is interesting only for history-of-science purposes. You said that you wanted to include more references; I am entirely happy with that. Do you have constructive suggestions for useful things to read to learn more about 14C dating? It's not history of science.
Talk:Radiocarbon dating/Archive 3
If not, then there is nothing to talk about. If you explain what the Dutch-language reference says in clear English though, then we can find English-language links that say the same thing—and cite them.
They are of crucial importance for understanding radiocarbon dating. You can find plenty of discussion about this topic. I do not know which other links you mean are missing. Some links were moved to other sections "See other" and "External links" or appeared to be wholly redundant.
Not in those who rather than read the article, use it as a tool and go to the references and the external links when they want to calibrate a date. I only know of one: This is not a program used by many people for good reason ; moreover, if readers want it, they can easily get it by following either the CalPal link which is still there or the radiocarbon.
Having two links to CalPal looked almost like advertising. It is only once. And where I and other that use it several times per day can find it. You appear to be playing a game that is inappropriate for Wikipedia. I ask you to cease such actions. I expanded the acronym to avoid further confusion between oceanic agencies. Carbon dating can only be trusted for smaller dates, such as a few thousand years, because it is mroe logical to assume that less "stuff" has hapenned in the last 2 thousand years or so.
Then, read the section "calibration" of this article and ask yourself: The heading was confusing. Radiocarbon is used to date much more than archaeological samples, as said in the articles related to C The reader would get the impression that the simplified method works only for archaeological samples. The simplified calculations proposed have a granularity of one half-life, i. BTW, such coarse method is described in the article about radiometric datingsee  Jclerman Also, the formula is not that important, because you really have to calibrate the ages via tree rings.
You are probably right that the formula unnecesarily intimidates people though. Perhaps the discussion of the formula should be improved. Also, I like the example that you give at the end on your user page: I tried to shorten it but, in fact, I got it longer. I made some punctuation and other minor changes that migth be incorrect or unwanted Perhaps the table could have an extra row with the corresponding dates for each fraction, thus avoiding the mystery of the logs This is the way I introduce the concept to my beginning high school Chem 1 students as they haven't been exposed to rate laws and such and this is easier for them to grasp.
I use base 10 logs for them as it's easier for them to grasp most don't know what logs are and with a brief intro they can use another button on their calculators: The example giving non-integer half lives is important as it is simply the most common real world outcome I just picked a random fraction off the top of my head there. You said that "we need a raw date to input into the calibration curves". We need the raw 14C measurement, true, but we do not need to do the exponential calcuation.
Rather, the raw 14C measurement can be directly compared with the raw 14C ages in tree rings it is actually easier this way, because then the distributions are true Gaussian. I'll be considering them when I make some minor edits to the sections in discussion. It will be later, probably overnight.
I wonder if you could put a webcam in your classroom. I destroyed a little more your table, examples and text. See suggestions that I included between  I am not familiar with table editing, neither wiki or html. See also my comments below. And your non-integer n is a great idea. See my suggestion for an extra example with a larger n.
Also added one more column - just cause it would fit: The only problem I find with using the "easy" method is that my advanced chem students want to use it rather than the "book" rate constant eqn. Interesting result 'tho I can't say how accurate.
I failed to understand your statement: Can you please explain this method and give a reference to it?. Since to use calibration curves one needs to input a raw age or raw date value, I've expanded my current draft in progress to explain the experimental procedures to obtain such value before using a calibration curve. One of my problems was not to understand what do you mean by raw 14C measurement activity?
Other statement I couldn't parse is: How different is this from a calibration curve? Many people will not understand it; among those people that do, they could find out what they need from the article on Exponential decay which is linked to from this article. I preferred your previous proposed text! As for the term "raw", I'd used this because that is what you had used.
So we do not need to use exponentials. Notice that I would not know what it means. I use "raw C14 date", "raw C14 age", "calibrated calendrical C14 date", "raw C14 radio activity", "net C14 radio activity", etc. Notice that only the "raw activity" is the result of a primary measurement. All other quantities are calculated. The first time that the word "raw" was used was in your posting at I actually don't know what "raw" means in any context.
Anyway, though, I think we might be better off letting this subject drop, and I will agree not to use "raw" anymore. In fact, they grew up during six months of extensive exchanges with users from varied backgrounds.
It still keeps growing in length due to the need to define the quantities we are using. Once we agree about what we all mean, it could be trimmed down.
I still do not understand how can you avoid the exponential to obtain a "calibrated calendrical date" from a "raw C14 age".
To understand what you mean I need to know what is that you measure. Okay, here's a simplified example. Measure the 13C-normalized activity levels of tree rings from the years AD, Also measure the 13C-normalized activity level of the sample that you want to radiocarbon-date.
There are details that I've left out here, but I hope the example illustrates the main idea okay. There should be better sources. I am describing how it is done in the following. I fail to see the advantage in reconverting data from ages to activities, though.
Which is better for Wikipedia? This is a serious question; I'm not really sure. Regarding what you wrote below, it mostly reads nice and clearly! The explanation for 13C could be clearer, I think. Also, the text does not account for AMS labs, which can use milligram amounts of carbon.
And it is untrue that trees are from many latitudes: It would be senseless to sample Equatorial treerings because most if not all species grown in such latitudes do not have annual rings since there are no marked seasonal variations and, anyhow, because the Equatorial masses of air are a mixture of Northern and Southern Hemisphere air. The article states clearly that corrections or normalizations for isotope fractionation have not been included yet?
Carbon - Wikipedia
Where is the limit between an article and a how-to manual? Decontamination of samples for extraneous carbon has not been described either. My below discussion of calibration clearly refers to radio activity detection counting, thus AMS was not mentioned. Activity levels are determined by AMS. The paragraph about "grams of wood" seems to be irrelevant here and potentially misleading.
Also, the part about "protected species" is new to me; are you refering to bristlecone pine? Have you seen the list of the different localities, continents, elevations, in N and S Hemispheres from where tree sections were collected? AMS is mass spectrometryit does not measure activities. It counts atoms which have not yet disintegrated: The earlier method of radio activity counting detects only the atoms at the moment they are disintegrating: Lets the reader infer the non-trivial task of chiseling wood from a tree section to obtain suitable amounts of wood that were used for "points" on the calibration curves.
FYI, bristlecone pine is not the only such species used for calibration because it grows in very restricted localities. Calibration of the radiocarbon scale had to rely also on S Hemisphere and European trees.
Activity levels can be determined from AMS measurements think about it. What does it matter if conventional radiocarbon was used for most of the calibration measurements? It is potentially misleading because without more discussion readers might think that grams are always necessary. Many of the trees used for calibration are readily-available oaks; I don't think that they are protected. Maybe the root of our apparent disagreement is over how much detail should go into this article.
My view is that too many details obscure the central points and leave readers more confused than enlightened.
- Q: How can carbon dating work on things that were never alive?
- Diamonds can be used to date the origin of modern plate tectonics
- Tiny Inclusions Reveal Diamond Age and Earth’s History: Research at the Carnegie Institution
Possibly a compromise would be to include many more details even than you are suggesting, and put that in a separate article? This means that the wood of treering samples is combusted to produce carbon compounds carbon dioxide, benzene, etc whose [specific raw uncorrected, unnormalized radio]activity can be detected by counting its disintegrations per minute.
To attain the appropriate precision and accuracy, the determination of such raw activity requires grams of wood and weeks of counting its radioactive disintegrations.