Calculate the age of a material based upon its half-life. . such as rubidium- strontium dating (Rb decays into Sr with a half-life of Complete Earth History WebQuest 2 and Relative Dating worksheet! Unstable radioactive parent isotope rubidium 87 forms strontium Radiometric dating is a means of determining the "age" of a mineral specimen by Therefore the relative amounts of rubidium and strontium can be.
C ratio in living organisms allows us to determine how long ago the organism lived and died. Image used with permission CC-BY 4. C dating does have limitations. For example, a sample can be C dating if it is approximately to 50, years old. Before or after this range, there is too little of the isotope to be detected. Substances must have obtained C from the atmosphere.
For this reason, aquatic samples cannot be effectively C dated. Lastly, accuracy of C dating has been affected by atmosphere nuclear weapons testing.
Fission bombs ignite to produce more C artificially.Radioactive Dating
Samples tested during and after this period must be checked against another method of dating isotopic or tree rings. To calculate the age of a substance using isotopic dating, use the equation below: Ra has a half-life of years. Radioactive Dating Using Nuclides Other than Carbon Radioactive dating can also use other radioactive nuclides with longer half-lives to date older events. For example, uranium which decays in a series of steps into lead can be used for establishing the age of rocks and the approximate age of the oldest rocks on earth.
- Radioactive Decay Power Point Notes
Since U has a half-life of 4. In a sample of rock that does not contain appreciable amounts of Pb, the most abundant isotope of lead, we can assume that lead was not present when the rock was formed. Therefore, by measuring and analyzing the ratio of U Pb, we can determine the age of the rock. This assumes that all of the lead present came from the decay of uranium If there is additional lead present, which is indicated by the presence of other lead isotopes in the sample, it is necessary to make an adjustment.
Potassium-argon dating uses a similar method. K decays by positron emission and electron capture to form Ar with a half-life of 1. If a rock sample is crushed and the amount of Ar gas that escapes is measured, determination of the Ar K ratio yields the age of the rock. Other methods, such as rubidium-strontium dating Rb decays into Sr with a half-life of As ofthe oldest known rocks on earth are the Jack Hills zircons from Australia, found by uranium-lead dating to be almost 4.
An ingenious application of half-life studies established a new science of determining ages of materials by half-life calculations.
After one half-life, a 1. These lines are called "isochrons". The steeper the slope of the isochron, the more half lives it represents. When the fraction of rubidium is plotted against the fraction of strontium for a number of different minerals from the same magma an isochron is obtained.
If the points lie on a straight line, this indicates that the data is consistent and probably accurate. An example of this can be found in Strahler, Fig If the strontium isotope was not present in the mineral at the time it was formed from the molten magma, then the geometry of the plotted isochron lines requires that they all intersect the origin, as shown in figure However, if strontium 87 was present in the mineral when it was first formed from molten magma, that amount will be shown by an intercept of the isochron lines on the y-axis, as shown in Fig Thus it is possible to correct for strontium initially present.
The age of the sample can be obtained by choosing the origin at the y intercept.
Note that the amounts of rubidium 87 and strontium 87 are given as ratios to an inert isotope, strontium However, in calculating the ratio of Rb87 to Sr87, we can use a simple analytical geometry solution to the plotted data. Again referring to Fig. Since the half-life of Rb87 is When properly carried out, radioactive dating test procedures have shown consistent and close agreement among the various methods.
If the same result is obtained sample after sample, using different test procedures based on different decay sequences, and carried out by different laboratories, that is a pretty good indication that the age determinations are accurate. Of course, test procedures, like anything else, can be screwed up.
Mistakes can be made at the time a procedure is first being developed. Creationists seize upon any isolated reports of improperly run tests and try to categorize them as representing general shortcomings of the test procedure. This like saying if my watch isn't running, then all watches are useless for keeping time. Creationists also attack radioactive dating with the argument that half-lives were different in the past than they are at present. There is no more reason to believe that than to believe that at some time in the past iron did not rust and wood did not burn.
Calculating Half-Life - Chemistry LibreTexts
Furthermore, astronomical data show that radioactive half-lives in elements in stars billions of light years away is the same as presently measured. On pages and of The Genesis Flood, creationist authors Whitcomb and Morris present an argument to try to convince the reader that ages of mineral specimens determined by radioactivity measurements are much greater than the "true" i. The mathematical procedures employed are totally inconsistent with reality.
Henry Morris has a PhD in Hydraulic Engineering, so it would seem that he would know better than to author such nonsense. Apparently, he did know better, because he qualifies the exposition in a footnote stating: This discussion is not meant to be an exact exposition of radiogenic age computation; the relation is mathematically more complicated than the direct proportion assumed for the illustration.
5.7: Calculating Half-Life
Nevertheless, the principles described are substantially applicable to the actual relationship. Morris states that the production rate of an element formed by radioactive decay is constant with time. This is not true, although for a short period of time compared to the length of the half life the change in production rate may be very small.
Radioactive elements decay by half-lives. At the end of the first half life, only half of the radioactive element remains, and therefore the production rate of the element formed by radioactive decay will be only half of what it was at the beginning.
The authors state on p. If these elements existed also as the result of direct creation, it is reasonable to assume that they existed in these same proportions. Say, then, that their initial amounts are represented by quantities of A and cA respectively. Morris makes a number of unsupported assumptions: This is not correct; radioactive elements decay by half lives, as explained in the first paragraphs of this post. There is absolutely no evidence to support this assumption, and a great deal of evidence that electromagnetic radiation does not affect the rate of decay of terrestrial radioactive elements.
He sums it up with the equations: He then calculates an "age" for the first element by dividing its quantity by its decay rate, R; and an "age" for the second element by dividing its quantity by its decay rate, cR. It's obvious from the above two equations that the result shows the same age for both elements, which is: Of course, the mathematics are completely wrong.
The correct relation can obtained by rearranging the equation given at the beginning of this post: For a half life of years, the following table shows the fraction remaining for various time periods: In all his mathematics, R is taken as a constant value.
We may therefore set R as equal to the initial rate in the above table: Click on the web site of Dr.