Edward Thomas Hall | Revolvy
An earthquake in Jerusalem in AD 33 may have caused an atomic reaction which created the Turin Shroud and skewed radiocarbon dating. "Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin". .. M. Canaday, former president and major shareholder of the Willys, manufacturer of Jeeps during World War II. .. studies in acting at the Central Saint Martins' Drama Centre, graduating in Pope Francis prayed Sunday before the mysterious Shroud of Turin, Radiocarbon dating in declared the 14 by four foot ( by metres) cloth, which.
Shroud of Turin
Based on this comparison Rogers concluded that the undocumented threads received from Gonella did not match the main body of the shroud, and that in his opinion: It may not have taken us long to identify the strange material, but it was unique amongst the many and varied jobs we undertake. She has rejected the theory of the "invisible reweaving", pointing out that it would be technically impossible to perform such a repair without leaving traces, and that she found no such traces in her study of the shroud.
Gove helped to invent radiocarbon dating and was closely involved in setting up the shroud dating project. He also attended the actual dating process at the University of Arizona. Gove has written in the respected scientific journal Radiocarbon that: If so, the restoration would have had to be done with such incredible virtuosity as to render it microscopically indistinguishable from the real thing.
Even modern so-called invisible weaving can readily be detected under a microscope, so this possibility seems unlikely. It seems very convincing that what was measured in the laboratories was genuine cloth from the shroud after it had been subjected to rigorous cleaning procedures.
Probably no sample for carbon dating has ever been subjected to such scrupulously careful examination and treatment, nor perhaps ever will again. Atkinson wrote in a scientific paper that the statistical analysis of the raw dates obtained from the three laboratories for the radiocarbon test suggests the presence of contamination in some of the samples. They examined a portion of the radiocarbon sample that was left over from the section used by the University of Arizona in for the carbon dating exercise, and were assisted by the director of the Gloria F Ross Center for Tapestry Studies.
They found "only low levels of contamination by a few cotton fibers" and no evidence that the samples actually used for measurements in the C14 dating processes were dyed, treated, or otherwise manipulated.
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They concluded that the radiocarbon dating had been performed on a sample of the original shroud material. A determination of the kinetics of vanillin loss suggest the shroud is between and years old. Even allowing for errors in the measurements and assumptions about storage conditions, the cloth is unlikely to be as young as years". Others contend that repeated handling of this kind greatly increased the likelihood of contamination by bacteria and bacterial residue compared to the newly discovered archaeological specimens for which carbon dating was developed.
Bacteria and associated residue bacteria by-products and dead bacteria carry additional carbon that would skew the radiocarbon date toward the present.
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Rodger Sparks, a radiocarbon expert from New Zealand, had countered that an error of thirteen centuries stemming from bacterial contamination in the Middle Ages would have required a layer approximately doubling the sample weight. Pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry examination failed to detect any form of bioplastic polymer on fibers from either non-image or image areas of the shroud. Harry Gove once hypothesised that a "bioplastic" bacterial contamination, which was unknown during the testing, could have rendered the tests inaccurate.
He has however also acknowledged that the samples had been carefully cleaned with strong chemicals before testing. He inspected the Arizona sample material before it was cleaned, and determined that no such gross amount of contamination was present even before the cleaning commenced. They concluded that the proposed carbon-enriching heat treatments were not capable of producing the claimed changes in the measured radiocarbon age of the linen, that the attacks by Kouznetsov et al.
Jackson proposed to test if this were actually possible. Before conducting the tests, he told the BBC that "With the radiocarbon measurements and with all of the other evidence which we have about the Shroud, there does seem to be a conflict in the interpretation of the different evidence. Other similar theories include that candle smoke rich in carbon dioxide and the volatile carbon molecules produced during the two fires may have altered the carbon content of the cloth, rendering carbon-dating unreliable as a dating tool.
Facial and Head Wounds The man on the Shroud has a mustache, beard and hair falling to his shoulders in a central part. His cheeks are swollen, and below his right cheek is a triangular-shaped wound.
His nose is bruised and swollen, and the cartilage may be separated from the bone. The nose is scratched and dirty. The areas around the eyes are swollen. His face appears to have been beaten with a hard object such as a fist or stick and injured in a fall. There are more than 30 head wounds produced by a cap made of sharp, pointed objects. The same streams are on the right arm. This evidence confirms crucifixion.
When a crucified victim hung on a cross, he could not take in air unless he pushed himself up with his feet to raise his shoulders and expand his rib cage. Sometimes to hurry death, the Roman executioners would break the legs of the crucified to stop them from breathing. Although many people believe Jesus' nail holes were in his hands, the Greek word used in the Gospels is cheir, which also means "wrist and forearm. Pierre Barbet said that a nail driven into the Space of Destot in the wrist would push aside four small bones without breaking them.
Driving the nail here also spontaneously contracts the thumb inward to lie across the palm, which is why the thumbs are not visible on the Shroud.
Shoulder Injuries Two broad excoriated areas occur across the man's shoulder blades. This is consistent with carrying a heavy crossbeam 80 to lbs. Falling under this weight caused scratches, lesions, and abrasions on the front of the man's knees. Patches of dirt are on the knees, nose, and bottoms of the feet.
The man's right shoulder appears dislocated, another source of intense pain. Leg and Foot Wounds A large amount of blood resulted from a piercing wound to the foot. Pathologist Robert Bucklin identified the source of this flow as "a square image surrounded by a pale hole" in the metatarsal zone. From this wound, some blood runs vertically toward the toes, but most flows toward the heels and horizontally onto the cloth. This means the man bled in different positions -- vertically while on the cross and horizontally while being carried after he was dead.
Why did most of this blood flow occur after the man had died? While the man was crucified in the vertical position, blood accumulated in the front and lower part of the foot.
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This blood flowed out after the nail was removed and the body was laid flat. The man's right foot was placed directly against a flat surface while his left leg is bent at the knee and his left foot rotated to rest on top of the right foot. A single nail driven between the metatarsal bones could affix both feet in a stationary position. In keeping with the Biblical prophecy that none of the Messiah's bones would be broken, like the Passover lamb Exodus Chest Wound On the right side of the man's chest is a large wound.
Blood and watery fluid flowed out due to gravity, not a pumping heart. Most experts agree that the watery fluid came from the pleural cavity and from the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, while the blood came from the heart. The elliptical-shaped wound is about 4. This matches the shape and size of the Roman leaf-shaped lancea used by foot soldiers. All the blood on the Shroud is whole blood with blood serum, of blood type AB, and of a human male because of the presence of human DNA with both X and Y chromosomes.
Uniqueness of the Image If a corpse could naturally leave body images or blood stains with clearly marked edges like those on the Shroud, it should have happened on other burial garments, blankets, shirts, trousers, soldiers' uniforms, bandages or other wrappings for the billions of people who have died.
But it has not. All naturalistic methods to duplicate these stains have failed. The Shroud contains no traces of myrrh or aloes, perspiration, urea, or bodily fluids other than blood. How were the sharply defined blood stains that were not in contact with the cloth transferred to it, and in the same way they appeared on the body? And how is it that these blood stains are so embedded in the cloth that they can be seen on the outer side of the cloth, the side not touching the body?
Some extraordinary event occurred to this dead body that caused its blood marks and its full-length negative images to appear on the cloth.
This had to occur within 2 to 3 days of the body being wrapped in the cloth, as there are no signs of decomposition, which takes place 2 to 3 days after death. Similar weaves have been discovered well before the time of Christ. Traces of cotton fibers were found of the Gossypium herbaceum variety, distinctive to the Middle East.
No traces of wool were found, in keeping with Jewish law, "Neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee. A Roman Coin It is possible that a Roman coin was placed over the man's right eye.
Some features can be seen of a Pontius Pilate lepton minted between 29 and 32 AD. The Greek letters UCAI part of the inscription for Tiberius Caesar may be seen, along with a staff or lituus, and a clipped coin margin.
Limestone and Pollen A limestone sample from the foot region of the man in the Shroud was compared to a sample from the Ecole Biblique, the same rock shelf as the Holy Sepulcher and the Garden Tomb in Jerusalem. Both consisted of calcium carbonate in the form of travertine aragonite and were an unusually close match. Max Frei, an expert in Mediterranean flora, identified 58 pollen grains on the Shroud, of which 42 grow in Jerusalem, where the cloth must have originated.
Alan Whanger identified 28 species of flowers represented by flower images on the Shroud. All 28 species are found in Jerusalem. They all bloom in March and April Easter and would have been available at marketplaces or in fields.
How did the Turin Shroud get its image?
The flower images on the Shroud were from wilted flowers that were 24 to 36 hours old. The Unwashed Body Normally, Jewish custom requires a deceased body to be washed and anointed with oil.
However, in the case of blood, it was to be buried with the body, since the "life of the flesh is in the blood.
Therefore, the body would not be washed, as is the case with the man in the Shroud. Also, with the Sabbath quickly approaching, the burial had to be completed before sundown.
Only the application of radiation light or heat to cellulose will artificially darken it, as if it had rapidly aged. This radiation occurred at a low temperature since there are no by-products pyrolytic compounds from high-temperature degradation. Inphysicist Thomas Phillips first proposed that particle radiation had irradiated the Shroud. This source of radiation came from the man's body itself. Only proton radiation would explain all 32 of the Shroud's body image features.
You don't have to be a theologian to realize that all of the unfakable features and events encoded into this burial shroud are similar to the very same events and circumstances that are recorded to have occurred to the historical Jesus Christ. Chlorine Cl occurs naturally in blood. If neutrons were released by the man's body, they would have ricocheted throughout the tomb.
Each time the neutrons collided with atoms in the rock, cloth, blood, or other matter, they would have lost energy and speed. Occasionally, some nuclei within the cloth reacted by "capturing" an individual neutron, where it then joined other protons and neutrons within the nucleus.
A new distinct atom was created that is so rare, it virtually does not exist in nature. Thus, some Ca atoms become Ca atoms, and some Cl atoms become Cl atoms.
Since the half-lives of Cl and Ca areandyears, respectively, almost all of the Cl and Ca atoms that were created 2, years ago throughout this burial cloth would still be present today.
Scientists have demonstrated that if a known number of neutrons irradiate material containing known amounts of chlorine or calcium, then known numbers of new Cl and Ca will be produced within the irradiated material. Both the presence of the newly created Cl and Ca atoms and their specific amounts can be determined by measuring the Cl to Cl and Ca to Ca ratios of the neutron irradiated material. An accelerator mass spectrometer AMS would be used to measure these ratios. C atoms are created from the common nitrogen atom called N The N atom has 7 protons and 7 neutrons and does not decay.
After a neutron collides with and enters the N nucleus, it causes instability within the nucleus, ejecting a proton. The resulting nucleus is a C nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. The newly created C atoms remain within the molecular structure of the Shroud including the image and the blood marks. Knowing that the half-life of C atoms is 5, years allows scientists to determine the age of an object by counting its remaining C atoms.
This would account for the erroneous Carbon 14 dating which concluded that the Shroud dated from to AD. If the world erroneously dismisses the Shroud as a fake, and yet cannot reproduce its image or blood marks, then it can be dismissing the most important artifact in human history, an artifact which proves the resurrection of Jesus Christ and Him being the Son of God. The blood should have long ago turned dark brown or black. Carlo Goldini concluded from his experiments that when blood marks are first exposed to neutron radiation and then to ultraviolet light sunlightthe blood marks display a bright red coloration.Problems with Radio carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin