Evolution's opportunists: ray-finned fish - Futurity
PDF | Ray-finned fishes make up half of all living vertebrate species. the “bush at the top of the tree” that includes percomorphs and other spiny-finned teleosts. .. †Brachydegma caelatum, which dates to the Early Permian. The spiny-finned teleost fishes (Acanthomorpha) include nearly date to the early Late Cretaceous (eLK; Cenomanian, –94 Ma; all dates. Ray-finned fish have fins supported by long, bony rods arranged in a ray pattern. After re-evaluating fossils from sites in Scotland dating to million fish like Fouldenia used their crushing jaws to dine on these spiny.
This long-extinct fish, and a handful of its relatives, demonstrate that in the immediate aftermath of the end-Devonian extinction, ray-finned fish had already acquired a diversity of forms that gave them an evolutionary edge, enabling them to fill the ecological vacuum left by the demise of most major fish groups.
They not only recover from this extinction, but they go from being a few minor lineages to dominating all the oceans. The relatives of Fouldenia, shell-crushers all, apparently took advantage of this developmental quirk to produce new forms. This diverse band of survivors spread worldwide and persisted for nearly million years.
Spiny-finned fish | animal | afrocolombianidad.info
There are around 30, species of ray-finned fish today, comprising nearly 99 percent of all fish species. Scottish fossil records After re-evaluating fossils from sites in Scotland dating to million years ago, Sallan and Coates concluded that Fouldenia and its relative Styracopterus, which previous researchers had classified as the same species, are in fact separate genera.
A genus is the category of biological classification between the family and the species. Sallan and Coates determined that Fouldenia had massive tooth plates on its upper and lower jaws, suitable for preying on hard-shelled animals.
It resembled modern-day jacks, which include the Japanese amberjack, or yellowtail, familiar to sushi lovers. Styracopterus was an early mimic of modern deep-bodied fish such as the angelfish. Both of these primeval fish were less than 10 inches long. Explosive diversity New branches on the tree of life had sprouted, setting the stage for an explosive diversification of forms that evolutionary biologists call an adaptive radiation. These events often occur in response to new ecological opportunities—when habitats are unoccupied by competitors, for example.
Something similar happened to ray-finned fish.
Before the extinction, fish were dominated by two groups: Placoderms were eliminated by the end-Devonian extinction, and most of the lobe-finned fish perished as well, though survivors live on today in the lungfish and the coelacanth.
They are found in marine waters or estuaries of the Indo-Pacific region…… Scorpaeniform Scorpaeniform, order Scorpaeniformesany one of a group of bony fishes that are characterized by a plate of bone running across each cheek. The scorpaeniforms are widespread throughout the oceans of the world. They are believed to have originated in…… Scorpionfish Scorpionfish, any of the numerous bottom-living marine fish of the family Scorpaenidae, especially those of the genus Scorpaena, widely distributed in temperate and tropical waters.
Sometimes called rockfish or stonefish because they commonly live among…… Sculpin Sculpin, any of the numerous, usually small fish of the family Cottidae order Scorpaeniformesfound in both salt water and fresh water, principally in northern regions of the world.
Sculpins are elongated, tapered fish, usually with wide, heavy heads. The family includes about species, many of them well-known…… Sea hen Sea hen, fish, a species of lumpsucker … Sea horse Sea horse, genus Hippocampusany of about 36 species of marine fishes allied to pipefishes in the family Syngnathidae order Gasterosteiformes.
Their habitats include…… Sea robin Sea robin, any of the slim bottom-dwelling fish of the family Triglidae, found in warm and temperate seas of the world. Sea robins are elongated fish with armoured bony heads and two dorsal fins. Their pectoral fins are fan-shaped, with the bottom few…… Sheepshead Sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephaluspopular edible sport fish in the family Sparidae order Perciformescommon in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico waters of the southern North American coast.
- Evolution of fish
- Evolution’s opportunists: ray-finned fish
Although once prevalent in the New England to Chesapeake…… Shrimpfish Shrimpfish, any of four species of small, tropical marine fishes of the family Centriscidae order Gasterosteiformesfound in the Indo-Pacific.
Shrimpfishes are nearly…… Siamese fighting fish Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendensfreshwater tropical fish of the family Osphronemidae order Perciformesnoted for the pugnacity of the males toward one another. The Siamese fighting fish, a native of Thailand, was domesticated there for use…… Silversides Silversides, any of several species of small slim schooling fish of the family Atherinidae order Atheriniformesfound in freshwater and along coasts around the world in warm and temperate regions.
Silversides are named for the wide silvery stripe usually…… Sleeper Sleeper, any of the marine and freshwater fishes of the family Eleotridae of the suborder Gobioidei order Perciformes. Sleepers, found in warm and tropical regions, are so named because most species habitually lie quietly on the bottom. They are elongated…… Slipmouth Slipmouth, any of certain fishes order Perciformes that are characterized by slimy bodies with small scales and greatly protrusible mouths.
The presence of luminescent bacteria cultured within an organ surrounding the esophagus causes the bodies of…… Snail darter Snail darter, Rare species Percina tanasi of darter that originally was found only in the Little Tennessee River in the southeastern U. It became the subject of a legal controversy inwhen its status as an endangered species delayed for two…… Snailfish Snailfish, any of about species of marine fish often placed with the lumpsuckers in the family Cyclopteridae, but sometimes separated as a distinct family, Liparidae order Scorpaeniformes.
Snailfish are small, growing to a maximum length of about…… Snakehead Snakehead, any of a number of species of freshwater fish of the family Channidae, found in Africa and Asia.
Snakeheads, long-bodied and more or less cylindrical in cross section, have large mouths and long, single dorsal and anal fins; they range from…… Snapper Snapper, any of about species of fishes of the family Lutjanidae order Perciformes. Snappers are found, often in abundance, throughout the tropics.
Active, schooling fishes with elongated bodies, large mouths, sharp canine teeth, and blunt or forked…… Snipefish Snipefish, any of about 11 species in 3 genera of marine fishes of the family Macroramphosidae order Gasterosteiformes found in deeper tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans.
Snipefishes are small, deep-bodied fishes…… Snook Snook, any of about eight species of marine fishes constituting the genus Centropomus and the family Centropomidae order Perciformes. Snooks are long, silvery, pikelike fishes with two dorsal fins, a long head, and a rather large mouth with a projecting…… Soapfish Soapfish, any of about 24 species of marine fishes constituting the tribe Grammistini family Serranidae; order Perciformesoccurring from the Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region.
In appearance, they are characterized by a reduced spinous dorsal fin…… Sole Sole, any of a variety of flatfishes, but, more strictly, those of the family Soleidae order Pleuronectiformes. Soles in this restricted sense constitute about 30 genera and species of flatfishes found in temperate and tropical seas. Like numerous…… Spadefish Spadefish, family Ephippidaeany of about 17 species of marine fishes order Perciformespredominantly tropical though also found in temperate regions.
In appearance the spadefishes are deep-bodied and laterally compressed, with five or six vertical…… Spearfish Spearfish, any of certain marine fishes of the genus Tetrapterus, family Istiophoridae order Perciformes.
Spearfishes are characterized by a relatively short snout in comparison with other billfish. Several species may be recognized; two, T. The atheriniform…… Squirrelfish Squirrelfish, any of about 70 species of large-eyed, colourful, tropical reef fish of the family Holocentridae order Beryciformes. Squirrelfish are edible fish found throughout the tropics.
They have spiny fins and rough, prickly scales; some also have…… Stargazer Stargazer, fish of two related families, Uranoscopidae electric stargazers and Dactyloscopidae sand stargazersboth of the order Perciformes. Stargazers habitually bury themselves in the bottom. They have tapered bodies and big, heavy, flat heads. Sticklebacks…… Stonefish Stonefish, Synanceiaany of certain species of venomous marine fish of the genus Synanceia and the family Synanceiidae, found in shallow waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific.
Stonefish are sluggish bottom-dwelling fish that live among rocks or coral…… Sunfish Sunfish, any of numerous species of North American freshwater fishes placed with the crappies and black basses in the family Centrarchidae order Perciformes. The family contains about 30 species, all native to North America and all, with the exception…… Surfperch Surfperch, any of 23 species of fishes of the family Embiotocidae order Perciformes. Surfperches are found in the North Pacific Ocean; three or four species are native to Japanese waters, but all others are confined to the North American coast, mostly…… Surgeonfish Surgeonfish, any of about 75 species of thin, deep-bodied, tropical marine fishes of the family Acanthuridae order Perciformes.
Surgeonfishes are small-scaled, with a single dorsal fin and one or more distinctive, sharp spines that are located on either…… Swamp eel Swamp eel, any of about 15 species of slim, eel-like fish comprising the order Synbranchiformes. Swamp eels, unrelated to true eels Anguilliformesare found in fresh and brackish waters of the tropics. They appear to be related to the order Perciformes.
Sweepers have elongate-oval, compressed…… Swordfish Swordfish, Xiphias gladiusprized food and game fish, probably the single species constituting the family Xiphiidae order Perciformesfound in warm and temperate oceans around the world. The swordfish, an elongated, scaleless fish, has a tall dorsal…… Swordtail Swordtail, Xiphophorus helleriipopular tropical fish of the live-bearer family Poeciliidae order Atheriniformes.
The swordtail is an elongated fish, growing to about 13 centimetres 5 inches long and characterized, in the male, by a long, swordlike…… Tautog Tautog, fish of the western Atlantic, a large, commercially important species of wrasse … Tetraodontiform Tetraodontiform, order Tetradontiformesany member of a group of primarily tropical marine fishes that are closely related to the perciforms the typical advanced spiny-rayed fishes that evolved during the Eocene Period of the Cenozoic Era, about…… Threadfin Threadfin, any of about 41 species of marine fishes of the family Polynemidae order Perciformeswidely distributed along warm seashores, often over sand.
Threadfins have two well-separated dorsal fins and a forked tail, and are usually silvery in colour.
List of marine spiny-finned fishes of South Africa
Tilapias are perhaps best known because of their potential as an easily…… Tilefish Tilefish, any of about 40 species of elongated marine fishes in the family Malacanthidae order Perciformeswith representatives occurring in tropical and warm temperate seas.
Malacanthidae is formally divided into the subfamilies Malacanthinae and…… Tomtate Tomtate, any of certain fishes of the grunt q. Tonguefish are flattened, drop-shaped flatfish with small eyes, both on the left side of the head, and with long dorsal and anal fins…… Triggerfish Triggerfish, any of about 30 species of shallow-water marine fishes of the family Balistidae, found worldwide in tropical seas. Triggerfishes are rather deep-bodied, usually colourful fishes with large scales, small mouths, and high-set eyes.
Their common…… Tripletail Tripletail, any of four species of fishes constituting the family Lobotidae order Perciformes.
Evolution of fish - Wikipedia
The family contains two genera Lobotes and Datnioideswith members of the first genus found in tropical or warm temperate marine waters and those of the…… Trumpetfish Trumpetfish, genus Aulostomusany of the three species of marine fishes that constitute the family Aulostomidae order Gasterosteiformesfound on coral reefs and reef flats in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and western…… Tubesnout Tubesnout, either of the two species of fishes in the family Aulorhynchidae order Gasterosteiformes.
Both species—Aulorhynchus flavidus and Aulichthys japonicus—are marine and restricted to coastal regions of the northern Pacific Ocean.
Taxonomically,…… Tule perch Tule perch, the sole freshwater species of surfperch … Tuna Tuna, genus Thunnusany of seven species of oceanic fishes, some very large, that constitute the genus Thunnus and are of great commercial value as food. They are related to mackerels and are placed with them in the family Scombridae order Perciformes. A highly valued food fish, the turbot lives along sand and gravel shores. It is a left-sided flatfish, with its eyes normally on the left side of the head, and it is…… Two-horned sculpin Two-horned sculpin, any fish of the family Icelidae order Scorpaeniformes.
See … Unicorn fish Unicorn fish, any of certain exclusively marine fishes belonging to the genus Naso, in the family Acanthuridae order Perciformesoccurring in the tropical Indo-Pacific region. The 17 species are herbivorous algae eaters.