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Despite of all the sea and land response operations carried out to halt oil pollution, the expectations emerged that the consequences of the accident would be felt for several years on — environmentally and socio-economically. A number of public institutions and agencies jointly with commercial companies got engaged in determining the damage inflicted on the ecosystems.
Their produced figures and numbers were enormous and varied by more than three orders of magnitude to range from tens of millions to hundreds of billion roubles, while Ukraine was initially about to claim billions of USD from Russia in compensation for its sustained damage. Many central TV and radio channels presenters kept informing the public in their news blocks about the rescue efforts and measures taken to reduce the sustained damage.
Newspapers kept reporting conflicting figures and forecasts, and some of them were expecting the oil slick to reach the coasts of other Black Sea states as well by means of the currents. It became both necessary and apparent to determine as soon as possible potential ways of spreading of the oil and sulfur discharged into the sea, as well as the actual and potential impact of these hazardous substances on the ecosystem conditions in the region of the Strait and adjacent water space both at the time straight after the accident, and for a longer-term period.
A number of organizations from different agencies both in Russia and Ukraine in the course of the first several days following the accident had managed to carry out an initial oil-fuel spread assessment.
Further on, during numerous scientific institutes conducted complex observations in the Kerch Strait and adjacent water space of the Black and Azov Seas to assess the state of the environment and impact of the Kerch accident. The Kerch accident became the most studied oil spill event in the world — numerous inspection trips on coast and at-sea and more than 60 complex cruises were organized, and millions were spent for the post-disaster needs assessment.
Numerous papers, brochures and books were published, and certain are still planned for publication in Russian and Ukrainian. Herewith, we would rather analyze and summarize vast volumes of published and unpublished data, and information materials compiled during more than two years after the accident that have consolidated the view points of different Russian and Ukrainian public and academic authorities, why the Kerch disaster happened, as well as about its impact and lessons learnt.
The present monograph carries information and data about the sequence of events, contingency plans activated for the post-accident response to include the cleanup operations and remediation activities, emergency phase monitoring as well as numerous complex ecological observations carried out afterwards during the period of 14 November December As well, it describes meteorological conditions prevalent within duration of the extreme storm, characteristics of the wind waves and sea currents predominant at the time of the accident, pollution-zone parameters received through mathematical simulations jointly with aerial and visual observations, results of the satellite surveys over the surface waters and coasts pollution extent within the accident area, and the operational monitoring data on the land and the sea.
Analysis of pollution dynamics in the Kerch Strait and its adjacent sea space for the two years that have passed since the time of the accident water, bottom sediment and biota in November - December is presented.
A detailed complex assessment of the Kerch catastrophe magnitude and its impact on the coast and marine environment is included also. So far, the monograph remains the most complete compilation of available materials and data collected in the Black Sea region after the accident.
How accidental was this disaster, which has had such a negative effect on the recreational image of the northern Black Sea coast? Who is to blame for the wrecks - the traffic controllers, the owner of the ship or the charter party? What is the level of oil spill pollution preparedness and prevention in the Black Sea region? The book answers all these questions and many others. Summing up their research results, the authors consider the experience received in the course of assessment of an emergency situation produced by the Kerch Strait accident.
Also, lessons learnt during and after the Kerch disaster would contribute to enhancing the shipping safety standards, building stronger prevention and preparedness effort in the Black Sea region in case of an oil pollution accident and improve regional cooperation in emergency situations at the sea. Research on the Kerch Strait hydrology and water dynamics started in the late early 20 century, and these long-term observations and assessment results became summarized by the end of Azov Sea, The results of those studies were presented by several papers to be summarized in a monograph Simonov A.
Presently, regular observations are carried out at the strait Northern narrowest part at the Crimea-Caucasus cross-section by the Opasnoe hydro-meteorological station, HMS personnel.
Regular research on the hydro-chemical regime and water pollution levels of the Kerch Strait started in the late s.
The monograph Azov Sea, describes the hydro-chemical regime of the Kerch Strait and adjacent area of the Azov Sea till the mids. The publications Ilyin Yu. Yet, it has been never published a comprehensive and full overview of pollution of the Kerch Strait taking it for an independent geographical unit. Hence, no long-term trends of water quality recorded during the 30 years of observations are available.
These materials contain results of the inspection-trip observations, including measurements of flows, discharges, and ice-condition surveys. The MB UHMI database contains sets of the currents regular measurements taken by autonomous buoy stations with a period of observation ranging from 12 hours to 10 days and with a time-step from 5 to 30 minutes.
A large dataset of currents by current-meters and discharges measurements is available for different areas of the strait. Since the early s, an economic recession and lack of equipment have made monitoring impossible in the other parts of the Kerch Strait where it was previously conducted in the Kerch and Camush-Burun Bights of the Southern part of the strait, as well as in the Azov and Black Seas adjacent areas.
The bathymetry of the narrowest place in the northern part of the Kerch Strait and ferry between ports Crimea and Caucasus the dot line across the Strait. Red squares — monitoring stations. For a long time, the monitoring was complex, conducted seasonally during oceanographic surveys in the Black and Azov Seas Fig. Meteorological, hydrological and hydrochemical observations have been carried out at standard depths, together with collection of specific information.
Sincemonitoring with a different level of complexity was conducted mainly in the central and Southern parts of the Strait, and at the Kerch and Camush-Burun Bights Fig. Presently, an integrated regular monitoring of water, bottom sediments and biota are required to trace the impacts of increasing anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem of the Strait, including dredging in the navigation channel, commerce and fishing ports, dumping of dredged materials, increase in shipping, transshipment in ports and outside of ports, exploration and extraction of oil at areas close to the Strait.
The Kerch Strait linking the Black and Azov Seas plays an important role in the formation of hydrological and hydro-chemical peculiarities of the whole Azov-Black Seas Basin. In ancient times the area was known as the Cimmerian Bosporus Photo. View across the Kerch Strait inby Ivan Aivazovsky. The most important harbor along the coasts of the Kerch Strait is the Crimean city of Kerch which gives its name to the Strait.
The most important settlement on the Russian side is Taman where an important cargo port is under construction. Due to its intermediate position between the two seas, the Kerch Strait water regime, coast morphology, bathymetry, sediments distribution and other geo-morphological parameters have significantly varied with time.
The changes in the form and depths of the strait and adjacent areas of the Crimea, and especially of the Taman Peninsula, have become particularly significant, while certain elements of their present shoreline do not appear on historical maps, for example, the Tuzla Island Fig.
The modern state of the Kerch Strait shoreline and bathymetry. The length of the Kerch Strait is about 43 km along a straight line and it is 5 km longer along the fairway navigating channel. The width of the strait varies substantially from 3. The Strait is shallow. Its maximum depth is Its depth gradually decreases closer to the middle of the Strait, where large areas are no more than 5.
The total area of the Kerch Strait is about sq km, while the total water volume is 4. Major portions of the Kerch Strait are blocked by shoals of mud. Regular dredging is required to keep the vital modern shipping routes open between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. For instance, in the Kerch Strait 21, m3 of soil were dredged and dumped in the time period from to The coast of the Taman peninsula is a complex mixture of abrasive shores with rather well developed sandy accumulated structures like Chushka and Tuzla Spits, and some others.
Abrasive coasts of the Kerch Strait. The shore section of 22 km long from the Yantarny village up to the Panagia Cape is of abrasion nature. There is only small area from the Yantarny village to the Solenoe Lake where the shore is of accumulative origin. The shore section of 7 km long from the Panagia Cape to the Tuzla Cape is again of abrasion form.
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There are land slides there. The width of the beach here varies from 1 m to 10 m. There are two types of deposits there at the beach: