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The recent GBD study published by IHME in December used an updated life expectancy standard for the calculation of YLL and based the YLD. ence, and math, online dating sites suggest that meeting romantic partners and more couples are meeting online (Rosenfeld, ). One industry trade .. disability status . almost no benefit of word-of-mouth referrals and moved along. Child maltreatment Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Child maltreatment, adolescent attachment style, and dating violence: protective services-involved adolescents with borderlineto-mild intellectual disability. The violence and addiction equation: Theoretical and clinical issues in substance.

As individuals with intellectual disability reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment. Speech delays are particularly common signs of moderate ID. People with moderate intellectual disability need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to fully participate. While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities.

As adults, they may live with their parents, in a supportive group homeor even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances.

As adults, they may work in a sheltered workshop. They may learn some ADLs, but an intellectual disability is considered severe or profound when individuals are unable to independently care for themselves without ongoing significant assistance from a caregiver throughout adulthood.

X-linked intellectual disability Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Among children, the cause of intellectual disability is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases.

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Examples of such accidents are development of an extra chromosome 18 trisomy 18 and Down syndromewhich is the most common genetic cause. The most common are: Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons.

The most prevalent genetic conditions include Down syndromeKlinefelter syndromeFragile X syndrome common among boysneurofibromatosiscongenital hypothyroidismWilliams syndromephenylketonuria PKUand Prader—Willi syndrome.

Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus' cells divide as it grows. A pregnant person who drinks alcohol see fetal alcohol spectrum disorder or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with intellectual disability. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygenhe or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.

Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins. Diseases like whooping coughmeaslesor meningitis can cause intellectual disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate. Exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability. Iodine deficiency also causes goiteran enlargement of the thyroid gland.

More common than full-fledged cretinismas intellectual disability caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Certain areas of the world due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction are severely affected. Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have instituted widespread salt iodization programs, whereas, as ofRussia had not.

In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning. A third condition requiring onset during the developmental period is used to distinguish intellectual disability from other conditions dementia such as Alzheimer's disease or traumatic brain injuries. Lewis Terman adapted Binet's test and promoted it as a test measuring "general intelligence.

Current tests are scored in "deviation IQ" form, with a performance level by a test-taker two standard deviations below the median score for the test-taker's age group defined as IQ Until the most recent revision of diagnostic standards, an IQ of 70 or below was a primary factor for intellectual disability diagnosis, and IQ scores were used to categorize degrees of intellectual disability.

Since current diagnosis of intellectual disability is not based on IQ scores alone, but must also take into consideration a person's adaptive functioning, the diagnosis is not made rigidly. It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and such like.

IQ assessment must be based on a current test. This enables diagnosis to avoid the pitfall of the Flynn effectwhich is a consequence of changes in population IQ test performance changing IQ test norms over time. Distinction from other disabilities Clinicallyintellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilitieswhich is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as intellectual disability, or too specific as in specific learning disabilityor acquired later in life through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia.

Cognitive deficits may appear at any age. Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development. This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for intellectual disability.

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To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age. To measure adaptive behavior, professionals use structured interviews, with which they systematically elicit information about persons' functioning in the community from people who know them well. There are many adaptive behavior scales, and accurate assessment of the quality of someone's adaptive behavior requires clinical judgment as well.

Certain skills are important to adaptive behavior, such as: Daily living skillssuch as getting dressed, using the bathroom, and feeding oneself Communication skills, such as understanding what is said and being able to answer Social skills with peers, family members, spouses, adults, and others Management By most definitions, intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illnesssuch as schizophrenia or depression.

Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things. Causes, such as congenital hypothyroidism, if detected early may be treated to prevent development of an intellectual disability. They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies. Within one agency there could be departments that include fully staffed residential homes, day rehabilitation programs that approximate schools, workshops wherein people with disabilities can obtain jobs, programs that assist people with developmental disabilities in obtaining jobs in the community, programs that provide support for people with developmental disabilities who have their own apartments, programs that assist them with raising their children, and many more.

There are also many agencies and programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities.

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Beyond that, there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence.

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This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people. There are four broad areas of intervention that allow for active participation from caregivers, community members, clinicians, and of course, the individual s with an intellectual disability.

These include psychosocial treatments, behavioral treatments, cognitive-behavioral treatments, and family-oriented strategies. Results indicated that by age 2, the children provided the intervention had higher test scores than control group children, and they remained approximately 5 points higher 10 years after the end of the program.

By young adulthood, children from the intervention group had better educational attainment, employment opportunities, and fewer behavioral problems than their control-group counterparts. Typically, one-to-one training is offered in which a therapist uses a shaping procedure in combination with positive reinforcements to help the child pronounce syllables until words are completed. Sometimes involving pictures and visual aids, therapists aim at improving speech capacity so that short sentences about important daily tasks e.

The first goal of the training is to teach the child to be a strategical thinker through making cognitive connections and plans. Then, the therapist teaches the child to be metastrategical by teaching them to discriminate among different tasks and determine which plan or strategy suits each task. In general, this includes teaching assertiveness skills or behavior management techniques as well as how to ask for help from neighbors, extended family, or day-care staff. Although there is no specific medication for intellectual disability, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may be prescribed several medications.

For example, autistic children with developmental delay may be prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers to help with their behavior. Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with intellectual disability requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioral and psychiatric problems.

About a quarter of cases are caused by a genetic disorder. Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disability were commonly viewed as burdens on their families.

Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disability as barely human.

Until the Enlightenment in Europe, care and asylum was provided by families and the church in monasteries and other religious communitiesfocusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter and clothing. Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time. In the 13th century, England declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of making decisions or managing their affairs.

In the 17th century, Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disability as a disease. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life. In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an asylum model. People were placed by, or removed from, their families usually in infancy and housed in large professional institutions, many of which were self-sufficient through the labor of the residents.

Some of these institutions provided a very basic level of education such as differentiation between colors and basic word recognition and numeracybut most continued to focus solely on the provision of basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter.

Conditions in such institutions varied widely, but the support provided was generally non-individualized, with aberrant behavior and low levels of economic productivity regarded as a burden to society.

Individuals of higher wealth were often able to afford higher degrees of care such as home care or private asylums. Services were provided based on the relative ease to the provider, not based on the needs of the individual. A survey taken in in Cape Town, South Africa shows the distribution between different facilities.

The week ending July 28, was the final publication of the Most Played By Jockeys and Top charts, both of which had Perez Prado 's instrumental version of " Patricia " ascending to the top.

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The Billboard Hot is still the standard by which a song's popularity is measured in the United States. The Hot is ranked by radio airplay audience impressions as measured by Nielsen BDS, sales data compiled by Nielsen Soundscan both at retail and digitally and streaming activity provided by online music sources.

The most significant ones are: Charts are ranked by number of gross audience impressions, computed by cross-referencing exact times of radio airplay with Arbitron listener data. With the decline in sales of physical singles in the US, many songs that become number one on this chart often do not even chart on the Hot Digital sales are tracked by Nielsen SoundScan and are included as part of a title's sales points.

Compilation The tracking week for sales and streaming begins on Friday and ends on Thursday, while the radio play tracking-week runs from Monday to Sunday.

Billboard Hot - Wikipedia

A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesday. Each chart is post-dated with the "week-ending" issue date four days after the charts are refreshed online i. Friday, January 1 — sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins Monday, January 4 — airplay tracking-week begins Thursday, January 7 — sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends Sunday, January 10 — airplay tracking-week ends Tuesday, January 12 — new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 16 Policy changes The methods and policies by which this data is obtained and compiled have changed many times throughout the chart's history.

Although the advent of a singles music chart spawned chart historians and chart-watchers and greatly affected pop culture and produced countless bits of trivia, the main purpose of the Hot is to aid those within the music industry: Billboard has many times changed its methodology and policies to give the most precise and accurate reflection of what is popular. A very basic example of this would be the ratio given to sales and airplay.

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During the Hot 's early history, singles were the leading way by which people bought music. At times, when singles sales were robust, more weight was given to a song's retail points than to its radio airplay. As the decades passed, the recording industry concentrated more on album sales than singles sales. Musicians eventually expressed their creative output in the form of full-length albums rather than singles, and by the s many record companies stopped releasing singles altogether see Album Cuts, below.

Eventually, a song's airplay points were weighted more so than its sales. Double-sided singles Billboard has also changed its Hot policy regarding "two-sided singles" several times. The pre-Hot chart "Best Sellers in Stores" listed popular A- and-B-sides together, with the side that was played most often based on its other charts listed first. During the Presley single's chart run, top billing was switched back and forth between the two sides several times. But on the concurrent "Most Played in Juke Boxes", "Most Played by Jockeys" and the "Top ", the two songs were listed separately, as was true of all songs.