Thanksgiving (United States) - Wikipedia
Introduction and Links to Resources on Land Entry Case Files and Related Records. Those case files that were cancelled or relinquished will not be there, and may contain just as much useful of land ownership or settlement and dates essential to utilize other PDF files require the free Adobe Reader. Fee-free days make national parks accessible to more people. Mark your calendar for these entrance fee–free dates in All the money from entrance fees remains in the National Park Service, and at least 80 percent. Jehoahaz, a son of Josiah, ruled Judah for only three months, after which Neco exiles, though confined to Babylonia, had a relatively free existence there. ) than any other OT prophetic book, its prophecies can be dated with 25– 32 teach that the nations likewise will know God through his judgments; and chs.
The "buckle hat" atop the sculpture's head, now associated with the Pilgrims in pop culture, was fictional; Pilgrims never wore such an item, nor has any such hat ever existed as a serious piece of apparel. Two colonists gave personal accounts of the feast in Plymouth. The Pilgrims, most of whom were Separatists English Dissentersare not to be confused with Puritanswho established their own Massachusetts Bay Colony on the Shawmut Peninsula current day Boston in Puritans wished to remain in the Anglican Church and reform it, while the Pilgrims wanted complete separation from the church.
William Bradfordin Of Plymouth Plantation wrote: They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion.
All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they can be used but afterward decreased by degrees. And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc.
Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to the proportion.
Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports. The painting shows common misconceptions about the event that persist to modern times: Pilgrims did not wear such outfits, and the Wampanoag are dressed in the style of Native Americans from the Great Plains. Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruits of our labor.
They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which we brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others.
And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. William DeLoss Love calculates that this thanksgiving was made on Wednesday, July 30,a day before the arrival of a supply ship with more colonists,  but before the fall harvest. In Love's opinion this thanksgiving was significant because the order to recognize the event was from civil authority  Governor Bradfordand not from the church, making it likely the first civil recognition of Thanksgiving in New England.
And afterwards the Lord sent them such seasonable showers, with interchange of fair warm weather as, through His blessing, caused a fruitful and liberal harvest, to their no small comfort and rejoicing. For which mercy, in time convenient, they also set apart a day of thanksgiving… By this time harvest was come, and instead of famine now God gave them plenty … for which they blessed God. And the effect of their particular planting was well seen, for all had … pretty well … so as any general want or famine had not been amongst them since to this day.
Bradford's "Of Plymouth Plantation" was not published until the s. While the booklet "Mourt's Relation" was summarized by other publications without the now-familiar thanksgiving story. By the eighteenth century the original booklet appeared to be lost or forgotten. A copy was rediscovered in Philadelphia inwith the first full reprinting in In a footnote the editor, Alexander Young, was the first person to identify the feast as the first Thanksgiving.
Never coupled with a Sabbath meeting, the Puritan observances were special days set aside during the week for thanksgiving and praise in response to God's providence. Kennedy issued Proclamation on November 5, stating, "Over three centuries ago, our forefathers in Virginia and in Massachusetts, far from home in a lonely wilderness, set aside a time of thanksgiving. On the appointed day, they gave reverent thanks for their safety, for the health of their children, for the fertility of their fields, for the love which bound them together and for the faith which united them with their God.
The First National Proclamation of Thanksgiving was given by the Continental Congress in from its temporary location in York, Pennsylvaniawhile the British occupied the national capital at Philadelphia.
Delegate Samuel Adams created the first draft.
Congress then adapted the final version: For as much as it is the indispensable Duty of all Men to adore the superintending Providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with Gratitude their Obligation to him for Benefits received, and to implore such farther Blessings as they stand in Need of: And it having pleased him in his abundant Mercy, not only to continue to us the innumerable Bounties of his common Providence; but also to smile upon us in the Prosecution of a just and necessary War, for the Defense and Establishment of our unalienable Rights and Liberties; particularly in that he hath been pleased, in so great a Measure, to prosper the Means used for the Support of our Troops, and to crown our Arms with most signal success: It is therefore recommended to the legislative or executive Powers of these United States to set apart Thursday, the eighteenth Day of December next, for Solemn Thanksgiving and Praise: That at one Time and with one Voice, the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor; and that, together with their sincere Acknowledgments and Offerings, they may join the penitent Confession of their manifold Sins, whereby they had forfeited every Favor; and their humble and earnest Supplication that it may please God through the Merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to forgive and blot them out of Remembrance; That it may please him graciously to afford his Blessing on the Governments of these States respectively, and prosper the public Council of the whole: To inspire our Commanders, both by Land and Sea, and all under them, with that Wisdom and Fortitude which may render them fit Instruments, under the Providence of Almighty God, to secure for these United States, the greatest of all human Blessings, Independence and Peace: That it may please him, to prosper the Trade and Manufactures of the People, and the Labor of the Husbandman, that our Land may yield its Increase: To take Schools and Seminaries of Education, so necessary for cultivating the Principles of true Liberty, Virtue and Piety, under his nurturing Hand; and to prosper the Means of Religion, for the promotion and enlargement of that Kingdom, which consisteth "in Righteousness, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghost.
And it is further recommended, That servile Labor, and such Recreation, as, though at other Times innocent, may be unbecoming the Purpose of this Appointment, be omitted on so solemn an Occasion. George Washingtonleader of the revolutionary forces in the American Revolutionary War, proclaimed a Thanksgiving in December as a victory celebration honoring the defeat of the British at Saratoga.
National Thanksgiving Proclamation George Washington's Thanksgiving Proclamation, top and The Continental-Confederation Congressthe legislative body that governed the United States from toissued several "national days of prayer, humiliation, and thanksgiving",  a practice that was continued by presidents Washington and Adams under the Constitution, and has manifested itself in the established American observances of Thanksgiving and the National Day of Prayer today. Done in Congress at Philadelphia, the eleventh day of October, in the year of our LORD, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, and of our Sovereignty and Independence, the seventh.
The next day, Congressman Elias Boudinot from New Jersey proposed that the House and Senate jointly request of President Washington to proclaim a day of thanksgiving for "the many signal favors of Almighty God". Boudinot said that he "could not think of letting the session pass over without offering an opportunity to all the citizens of the United States of joining, with one voice, in returning to Almighty God their sincere thanks for the many blessings he had poured down upon them.
Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor, and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me "to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness.
That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks, for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation, for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his providence, which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war, for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed, for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.
And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions, to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations especially such as have shown kindness unto us and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord.
To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and Us, and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.
President John Adams declared Thanksgivings in and As Thomas Jefferson was a deist and a skeptic of the idea of divine interventionhe did not declare any thanksgiving days during his presidency.
Elmer Davis - This nation will remain the land of the free only
James Madison renewed the tradition inin response to resolutions of Congress, at the close of the War of Caleb Strong, Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusettsdeclared the holiday in"for a day of public thanksgiving and prayer" for Thursday, November 25 of that year. The document, written by Secretary of State William H. Sewardreads as follows: The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies.
To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God.
In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union.
Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle, or the ship; the axe had enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years, with large increase of freedom.
No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things.
Free Entrance Days in the National Parks (U.S. National Park Service)
They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. Schultz underlines how they helped America to keep to its Protestant Promise, especially Catholics and Jews. Historian Gordon Wood has argued, "Our beliefs in liberty, equality, constitutionalism, and the well-being of ordinary people came out of the Revolutionary era.
So too did our idea that we Americans are a special people with a special destiny to lead the world toward liberty and democracy. These sentiments laid the intellectual foundations for the Revolutionary concept of American exceptionalism and were closely tied to republicanismthe belief that sovereignty belonged to the people, not to a hereditary ruling class.
Republicanism led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created modern constitutional republicanismwith a limit on ecclesiastical powers. Historian Thomas Kidd argues, "With the onset of the revolutionary crisis, a significant conceptual shift convinced Americans across the theological spectrum that God was raising up America for some particular purpose.
Jefferson sought a radical break from the traditional European emphasis on "reason of state" which could justify any action and the usual priority of foreign policy and the needs of the ruling family over the needs of the people. He identified his nation as a beacon to the world, for, he said on departing the presidency inAmerica was: Young argues that after the end of the Cold War inneoconservative intellectuals and policymakers embraced the idea of an "American empire," a national mission to establish freedom and democracy in other nations, particularly poor ones.
She argues that after the September 11th, terrorist attacks, the George W. Bush administration reoriented foreign policy to an insistence on maintaining the supreme military and economic power of America, an attitude that harmonized with this new vision of American empire. Young says the Iraq War — exemplified American exceptionalism. We have been essential to the preservation and progress of freedom, and those who lead us in the years ahead must remind us, as RooseveltKennedyand Reagan did, of the unique role we play.
Neither they nor we should ever forget that we are, in fact, exceptional. In the formulation of President Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg AddressAmerica is a nation "conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal".
In Lincoln's interpretation, America is inextricably connected with freedom and equality, and in world perspective, the American mission is to ensure, "that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Harry Williams argues that Lincoln believed: In the United States man would create a society that would be the best and the happiest in the world. The United States was the supreme demonstration of democracy.
However, the Union did not exist just to make men free in America. It had an even greater mission—to make them free everywhere. By the mere force of its example, America would bring democracy to an undemocratic world. Some proponents of the theory of American exceptionalism argue that this system and the accompanying distrust of concentrated power prevent the United States from suffering a " tyranny of the majority ", are preservative of a free republican democracy, and also that it allows citizens to live in a locality whose laws reflect those voters' values.
A consequence of this political system is that laws can vary widely across the country. Critics of American exceptionalism maintain that this system merely replaces the power of the national majority over states with power by the states over local entities.
On balance, the American political system arguably allows for more local dominance but prevents more domestic dominance than does a more unitary system. No European nation recognizes the principle. To this day, the United States remains the only superpower capable, and at times willing, to commit real resources and make real sacrifices to build, sustain, and drive an international system committed to international law, democracy, and the promotion of human rights.
Experience teaches that when the United States leads on human rights, from Nuremberg to Kosovo, other countries follow. Frontier spirit[ edit ] Proponents of American exceptionalism often claim that many features of the "American spirit" were shaped by the frontier process following Frederick Jackson Turner 's Frontier Thesis.
They argue the American frontier allowed individualism to flourish as pioneers adopted democracy and equality and shed centuries-old European institutions such as royalty, standing armies, established churches and a landed aristocracy that owned most of the land.
Other nations had frontiers, but it did not shape them nearly as much as the American frontier did, usually because it was under the control of a strong national government.
Thanksgiving (United States)
South Africa, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia had long frontiers, but they did not have "free land" and local control. Their edge did not shape their national psyches. In Australia, "mateship" and working together was valued more than individualism was in the United States. Economic mobility and Social mobility For most of its history, especially from the midth to early 20th centuries, the United States has been known as the "land of opportunity", and in this sense, it prided and promoted itself on providing individuals with the opportunity to escape from the contexts of their class and family background.
Occupational—children could easily choose careers which were not based upon their parents' choices. America was notably unusual due to an accepted wisdom that anyone—from poor immigrants upwards—who worked hard, could aspire to similar standing, regardless of circumstances of birth.
This aspiration is commonly called living the American dream. Birth details were not taken as a social barrier to the upper echelons or high political status in American culture. This stood in contrast to other countries where many larger offices were socially determined, and usually hard to enter without being born into the suitable social group. American men born into the lowest income quintile are much more likely to stay there compared to similar people in the Nordic countries or the United Kingdom.
Gregory Mankiwhowever, state that the discrepancy has little to do with class rigidity; rather, it is a reflection of income disparity: Kammen reports that historians Lawrence Veysey, C. HuntingtonMona Harrington, John P. By the s, labor historians were emphasizing that the failure of a work party to emerge in the United States did not mean that America was exceptionally favorable grounds for workers.
By the late s, other academic critics started mocking the extreme chauvinism displayed by the modern usage of exceptionalism. Finally mids, colonial historians downplayed the uniqueness of the American experience in the context of British history.
In American Exceptionalism and Human RightsCanadian commentator Michael Ignatieff couches his discussion of the topic in entirely pejorative terms.
He identifies three main sub-types: Bush administration —the term was somewhat abstracted from its historical context. This new use of the term has served to confuse the topic and muddy the waters since its unilateralist emphasis, and actual orientation diverges somewhat from prior uses of the phrase.