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The signs can be manifested in places that favor the intimacy, such as showers or lavatories. If the signs reach their target, a verbal communication occurs in the same place; genital intimate contact usually does not happen in the establishment because the right conditions for intimacy do not exist. If it does take place, it is usually casual and often by chance, i. However, the investigators were able to obtain stories about sexual intercourses with penetration and without the use of preservatives.
The low number of customers or staff members also favors the practice of more explicit sexual expressions and furtive contacts. In moments like these, the scenario can be searched for and transformed by customers interested in erotic contacts.
Scenarios of sexual activity with the appearance of recreational scenarios. These scenarios operate in places without advertisement that identify them as public spaces, and when they do, they advertise these places as public wet rooms. For the unaware client, however, there is not a sign outside that identifies the place as a scenario for sexual activities but, once inside, the scenario can be loaded with symbols that suggest and validate the nature of the place decoration, erotic pictures and posters, erotic movies of explicit sex on TV circuits.
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Additionally, they generate an ambiguous atmosphere of prohibition as one informant said: The distribution of spaces and dimness of the place, favor the intimate contact among customers.
Some locations have complementary services, such as reading and relaxation areas, gymnasiums, massage centers, and television rooms where erotic movies are displayed.
The owners or administrators of these wet rooms are usually MSM, but also heterosexual males that have found a way to make a profit from this kind of business.
In this scenario certain values are considered: The tacit rules of the place allow for nudity and genital contact among the clients. However, interactions with sexual intentions are carried out in accordance with codes that disapprove vulgarity and value delicacy. Although some of the localities offer bar service, the consumption of psychoactive agents and the excess of alcohol consumption are not accepted.
The decoration and cleaning of the places vary. Its fees are not significantly higher than those of the rest. The hygiene and the quality of service in these places are related to the social status of the clientele. The aspects related to cleanliness were very important for the study, especially for places from the second group where sexual contacts take place in common areas in which ejaculations drop to the ground, walls, and other objects. This fact can increase the risk for clients to be exposed to secretions infected with HIV or other infectious germs.
The maintenance employees must use rubber gloves, but a few of the visited locations systematically use disinfectants to clean the floors. However, this practice seems to have improved since the first study. Although the entrance charges seem not to be high, customers become segmented regardless of minimum differences. Therefore, this place becomes something more than a place of random sexual contact, since it allows intellectual and social activities that stimulate the personal development of the actors.
The effeminate or delicate behaviors are tolerated but not shared, and frequently disapproved by several of the MSM that visit these places. Since the attractiveness of these locations depends on the age of the clientele, some places offer special discounts for students.
The information and promotion of the place is passed along person-to-person among clients. The days of higher flow are holydays and weekends. Many of the clients remain in the place all day long and during this period they can have several genital contacts with different people. In this type of scenarios MSM can express themselves in a more explicit way because the atmosphere of the place tolerates it and invites them to do so.
Customers usually walk nude, only covered with a towel and in sandals; some even walk barefoot. They come looking for another male who accepts a homosexual relationship, which can turn into genital contact in the same place. Just as in the previous scenario, the hook-up takes place through body language directed specifically to the person of interest, although trying to make it unaware to the rest of the public like a game of insinuation and hiding at the same time.
This non-verbal language is, however, more explicit and aggressive than in scenarios from the previous group. A signal can occur in any room of the scenario, especially in those that promote intimacy, such as showers, lavatories, and dark places.
In spite of the permissiveness of the place, the verbal and explicit expressions of sex are not welcomed by the players, who prefer the delicacy of the expression and the charm of a more elaborated hook-up. If the sign reaches its objective, a genital contact can occur, which is carried out in the same location.
It is often a rule of this scenario that each one of the clients has the right to participate or to refuse sexual contacts and, consequently, these ones do not involve any commercial transaction. The gay wet rooms of the area usually distribute condoms to their clients. However, it is frequently that customers practice unsafe sex instead.
According to some stories, the use of condoms by customers has decreased during the last years. Under the described conditions, ejaculations are dropped on the ground.
Genital contacts are possible in this scenario because there is an unstated rule which allows them and invites to do them in certain intimate places within the location. Some of them usually stimulate themselves by looking at others and they come motivated by this practice.
In spite of the permissiveness of the scenario, there are implicit rules that must be observed: A customer can establish several different types of contact and with several different people in a single visit to the place. In this context, youth and physical appearance constitute, according to the testimony of the players, one of the most important factors at the moment of selecting or being selected for a sexual relationship.
A client can refuse a request from another one if he does not find him attractive; the sign of rejection are usually non-verbal expressions such as a deviate look, the retreat of the hand or the absence. Genital contacts are usually anonymous. Verbal communication and mutual identification, if they occur, usually take place after the genital contact, as a complement. Although inside the scenario the physical contact between two people can be very intimate, it does not involves necessarily other types of relationships and the communication usually finishes after the genital contact has been performed or after leaving the place; the link that is created around the sexual intimate contact is usually very weak.
Sexual activities are not the only motivation offered by this scenario. A good number of customers usually dedicate great part of their time to enjoy baths or watch television in which movies of explicit sex are exhibited. These exhibitions act as an erotic stimulant, they motivate and validate different kinds of sexual contacts still without condoms and they are part of what is valued and accepted by clients. The egodistonic homosexuality, in which the individual finds it difficult to accept himself and causes discomfort within his familiar and social groups, can be relatively frequent among customers and the unpleasant feelings are more common when entering or leaving the place than when being inside, where the suffering is compensated by the anonymity and the rules of the house.
The legitimacy of sexual activities within the scenario makes the stimulating effects of alcohol and drugs lose importance in front of other motivations generated by the distribution of the space, the lights and the paraphernalia. Due to the above-mentioned fact, most of the sexual activities that take place in these scenarios are carried out in a relatively conscious and voluntary way, as product of a decision which cannot be attributed to the alienating effect of psychoactive drugs.
Other factors influence these decisions: However, younger or more attractive clients could have a higher rate of partner replacement and, for the same reason, a higher risk of acquiring or transmitting a STD. In this scenario, which could be approached from the perspectives of marketing studies, there are two kinds of actors: Most of the sex sellers are teenagers of low and medium socioeconomic class who need money to survive, buy clothes, use drugs or waste in electronic games.
Their offer is permanent at any hour of the day. However, the sexual trade activity is higher after 6 PM and on Fridays and Saturdays. Teenagers stroll alone around the park or near the road, in front of some of the commercial places of the area i. XXX theaters waiting for a potential client they could insinuate to with signs that they are interested in the deal: This industry has been technified; now there are middlemen who approach the potential clients and offer them a teenager for a commission; the middlemen are hatred by teenagers who consider them as exploiters.
Several of the boys from the park do not admit what they do, but do not look for a way to escape. In their opinion they would want an opportunity to get out but they consider that doors are closed for their personal development.
Most of these boys do not belong to a formal labor market and many of them consume psychoactive drugs during this activity, what facilitates their engagement into high risk practices. The customers for this scenario are mostly middle and upper class bisexual males older than Frequently they come to the park and then drive around until they make the contact. The deal is usually settled down inside the vehicle. Younger and handsome boys usually charge more.
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The sexual contact does not take place in the same park, but inside the vehicle or in motels. In this respect, the study found a conflict of interests that often produces physical aggressions, among three groups that compete for the sexual market of the area: The clients are mature men of lower and middle economic class.
In such a competitive business, the young sexual workers have difficulties to choose their clients or to impose them their requirements to use condoms. On the other hand, most of the clients who come to these scenarios look for brief and anonymous contacts which frequently do not lead to protection measures.
The scenario is built around key elements that induce the conquest attitude: People go to these places to entertain themselves, so they generate a system of rules which reject explicit sexual expressions, especially if they have homosexual components; paradoxically, this scenario accepts and reinforces another type of message that is related to gestures which suggest an open-mind about sex.
The cycle-road activity is an ambivalent scenario towards sexuality, and in this context MSM should communicate by means of non-verbal codes open to actors that, in turn, have a receptive attitude. Places of electronic games, halls and rest rooms of big malls and commercial centers were also identified as scenarios to conquest and even for genital contact among MSM, especially among teenagers and young males of middle and upper social classes.
Older males go to electronic games hoping to get the attention of the younger ones. The information obtained in relation to this topic was not enough to facilitate the comprehension of this scenario.
The scenario is built around the darkness, the tranquility that offers the anonymity, and the complicity that generate the movie as a collective erotic stimulus.
Most of the clients go alone. Hooking up is carried out through a non-verbal and corporal language. People who go with this objective stroll by the room or locate themselves next to entrance doors or near lavatories. Different genital contacts are carried out in the projection room or in the lavatories.
Condoms are not usually used. Homosexual contacts prevail, but it can also happen among heterosexual couples. The scenario, conformed also by heterosexual and bisexual clients, is permissive with this type of behavior that is usually carried out with the help of the darkness. Most of the porn cinemas of the metropolitan area are located in areas frequented by people from lower economic classes; the clients are also predominantly males of all ages, heterosexual and homosexual, of low and middle socioeconomic classes.
In some of the establishments they also consume psychoactive drugs marijuana and pasta of coca. The situation is known by the administrations of the movies, who, according to the stories, act as if they do not know.
This scenario was not found in and it has expanded notably from The Internet booths are concentrated in the downtown area; some work 24 hours a day and usually have cubicles with closing doors, which generates an intimate space where customers consult erotic material for adults on Internet.
Some of these places are usually visited by clients that leave the bars between 1: The booth does not have a restriction to be used for more than one person. The exchange of visitors in the cabin and the contacts of erotic type among customers are accepted tacitly for both the administrators and the costumers. The streets as hooking up scenarios. MSM have built in the streets two types of scenarios for hooking up: Streets of hooking up for money: It is likely that thieves post as sexual workers to contact their clients and rob them.
Hooking up streets where the conquest is usually achieved to give pleasure to people in the vicinity of commercial centers during the day or in certain traffic roads during dawn and after the rumbas. This scenario is frequented by young homosexual and bisexual males of middle social class.
The contacts settle down by corporal language and mutual agreement and not for money. Some areas of the city, because of their isolation characteristics the freeway and roads near La Macarena were, not long ago, places not only for hooking up, but also for sexual activities. Although, their isolation also implied the risk of assault or abuse by the police. In the vicinity of bars, parks, and some roads it has also increased the participation of children who offer their sexual services to wealthy men that visit the encounter places.
A frequent modality is the exchange of sexual favors for benefits highly valued by children and teenagers, such as clothes and expensive accessories or cash. Several of these teenagers carry out the transaction for objects or money with the intention of improving their physical appearance, which is highly valued by them.
Frequently, these teenagers maintain sexual relationships with their girlfriends at the same time.
To this respect, the speakers consider that bisexual behavior have increased among teenagers. The main variations refer to the increasing number of actors who go to the scenarios and the proliferation of places dedicated to this business. These changes could be understood better from the market perspective, which has discovered in MSM a discriminated against group, but one that is able to behave as a consumer and, consequently, a generator of utilities 4.
MSM has become the central object of a business that its owners perceive as a market in development. Service offers have been broaden and refined because of the demand and consumption capacity this group generate. This process, which began in the urban center of the capital and has extended progressively to other municipalities within the metropolitan area, has been also described in other regions of Latin America Exposed to exclusion processes and discrimination that do not allow them to appeal to the same interaction mechanisms allowed to the heterosexual population, MSM have a smaller autonomy about their sexuality, and they are forced to build parallel scenarios for conquest, sexual activities, and personal development.
These scenarios are conformed by implicit systems of rules that the participants adopt as values and that the market understands as goods. The values shared by the group in these scenarios constitute an implicit code of ethics that is imposed over the decisions of the actors and whose adoption allow MSM to carry out some of their fundamental needs, but it reduces, at the same time, the control margin about their risks and safety.
The ambivalent effect of the scenarios was one of the most outstanding discoveries in this study. According to the stories obtained, MSM consider that the described scenarios are an important resource that contributes to their personal development and solve several of their needs of identity, recreation, affection, freedom, and communication. On the other hand, the scenarios admit and reinforce behaviors that increase the risk of acquiring HIV or another STD.
As such, they are not perceived as dangerous nor they generate in the person the necessity to develop a special behavior of self-protection. In spite of the above-mentioned fact, not all the players act in the same way inside the scenario, and this discovery suggests the role of another type of personal conditions personal vulnerability. A lack of workforce is especially evident in the construction sector, which means that its gradual recovery is likely to be limited.
The tightness of the labour market will continue to affect businesses in Poland, and it remains one of factors making a further boost of growth impossible.
In addition, the insolvency law enacted in has favoured the increase in business insolvencies in Although improved tax collection has brought sizeable and positive effects to the Polish budget balance, this has been offset by costly social measures, such as child benefits and the lowering of the statutory retirement age in The introduction of the retail distribution tax, revised downwards under pressure from the European Commission, was initially delayed until and then to The government has also expressed intent to abolish the upper limit on pension contributions and therefore increase revenues of the Social Security Fund.
Deterioration of the political and social situation The conservative Law and Justice PiS party won a majority of seats in the Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament in the legislative elections of Octoberwith The European Commission has triggered Article 7 of the Union Treaty which could provide for the suspension of certain rights, including the right to vote, in case of a clear risk of serious violation of the rule of law.
Such actions have also generated social discontent within segments of the population, and have polarized public opinion. The switch has not yet resulted in a change of political or economic course of the government.
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Although the current government has successful achieved a higher collectability of taxes, the political climate is relatively gloomy. On the other hand, stable fundamentals, the Polish integration into Western European chains, and attractive yields have convinced foreign entities to not withdraw their investments from Poland. Nevertheless, the increased volatility of exchange rates confirmed that political instability and policy deterioration have worsened the external perception of Poland.
Payment Standard bills of exchange and cheques are not widely used, as they must meet a number of formal issuing requirements in order to be valid. Nevertheless, for dishonoured or contested bills and cheques, creditors may resort to fast-track procedures resulting in an injunction to pay. There is, however, one type of bill of exchange that is commonly used - the weksel in blanco.
The signature constitutes an irrevocable promise to pay and this undertaking is enforceable upon completion of the promissory note with the amount, place and date of paymentin accordance with a prior agreement made between the issuer and the beneficiary.
Weksels in blanco are widely used, as they also constitute a guarantee of payment in commercial agreements and the rescheduling of payments. This measure has been introduced to combat fraudulent money laundering. Bank transfers have become the most widely used payment method. Since phases of privatisation and consolidation, leading Polish banks now use the SWIFT network, which offers a cost effective, fast and flexible solution for the transfer of domestic and international funds.
Debt collection Amicable proceedings Amicable debt collection is the first step of the debt recovery procedure in Poland. These communications usually serve to obtain repayment of outstanding debt, to warn the debtor of further official actions, to obtain acknowledgment of the debt, to conclude an agreement between the creditor and the debtor based on the acknowledgment of its debt and to obtain a commitment to the repayment agreed.
As sinceinterest can be claimed as from the 31st day following delivery of the product or service, even where the parties have agreed to longer payment terms.
The legal interest rate will apply from the 31st day until the contractual payment date.
Thereafter, in the case of late payments, the tax penalty rate will apply. This is very often greater than the legal interest rate, unless the contracting parties have agreed on a higher interest rate. Similarly, default interest is due the day after the deadline, without the need for a formal notice.
By implementing the EU Directive, Poland introduced new rules regarding compensation for payment defaults in commercial transactions. These rules oblige debtors to pay the costs of recovery when the payment term expires. The defined amount is a lump sum of 40 euros — but it is possible to demand a larger amount if the costs of recovery prove to be higher. Legal proceedings Fast-track proceedings Creditors can seek an injunction to pay nakaz zaplaty via a fast-track and less expensive procedure, provided they can produce positive proof of debt such as unpaid bills of exchange, unpaid cheques, weksels in blanco, or other acknowledgements of debt.