The Plague () - IMDb
Release date. (). Country, Argentina France United Kingdom. Language, English. The Plague (original title: La Peste) is a Argentine- French-British drama film written and directed by Luis Puenzo and starring William .. IMDb, formerly known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information. Release date. (). Country, Argentina France United Kingdom. Language, English. The Plague (original title: La Peste) is a Argentine- French-British drama film written and directed by Luis Puenzo and. African Journals Online (AJOL) .. La peste y el cólera son sinónimos de destrucción, miseria, terror,desgracia y muerte. fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. De Albert Camus a Luis Puenzo.
The company is becoming a TV series producer with its new American subsidiary Gaumont International Television as well as its existing French production features.
Originally dealing in photographic apparatus, the company began producing films in to promote its make of camera-projector. The company headquarters are in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Gaumont opened foreign offices and acquired theatre chains Gaumont British, which later notably produced several films directed by Alfred Hitchcock such as The 39 Steps and The Lady Vanishes.
Following the World War I, Gaumont suffered economic losses due to increased competition from American Hollywood productions, inthe studios output had decreased to only 3 films. In addition, Gaumont was unable to pace with the cost of technological changes. Struck by mounting debts in the early s and the effects of the Great Depression, inthe studio ceased production and operated only as a theater and distribution company.
The company ceased production untilthe period was to see the return to prominence of Gaumont Studios. On February 2, Philippe Binant, technical manager of Digital Cinema Project at Gaumont, from to earlyGaumount and Disney made a partnership for producing films for theater distribution.
It asks a number of questions relating to the nature of destiny, the characters in the book, ranging from doctors to vacationers to fugitives, all help to show the effects the plague has on a populace.
The novel is believed to be based on the epidemic that killed a large percentage of Orans population in following French colonization. Oran and its environs were struck by disease multiple times before Camus published this novel, the Plague is considered an existentialist classic despite Camus objection to the label. Camus included a dim-witted character misreading The Trial as a novel as an oblique homage.
Additionally, he illustrates the human reaction towards the absurd. The Plague represents how the deals with the philosophical notion of the Absurd. The Narrator, the narrator presents himself at the outset of the book as witness to the events and privy to documents, asthma Patient, the asthma patient receives regular visits from Dr.
He is a seventy-five-year-old Spaniard with a face, who comments on events in Oran that he hears about on the radio. Castel is one of Rieuxs medical colleagues and is older than Rieux. He realizes after the first few cases that the disease is bubonic plague and is aware of the seriousness of the situation and he works hard to make an antiplague serum, but as the epidemic continues, he shows increasing signs of wear and tear.
Cottard, Cottard lives in the building as Grand. He does not appear to have a job and is described as having private means although he himself as a traveling salesman in wines. Cottard is a figure, silent and secretive, who tries to hang himself in his room. Afterwards, he not want to be interviewed by the police since he has committed a crime by attempting suicide. Cottards personality changes after the outbreak of plague, whereas he was aloof and mistrustful before, he now becomes agreeable and tries hard to make friends.
He appears to relish the coming of the plague, and Tarrou thinks it is because he finds it easier to live with his own now that everyone else is in a state of fear 8. After a brief incursion in journalism, he worked as a literature and Spanish professor but for reasons he was expelled from his professorship.
La Repubblica — La Repubblica is an Italian daily general-interest newspaper. It was founded in in Rome by Gruppo Editoriale LEspresso led by Eugenio Scalfari and Carlo Caracciolo, born as a radical leftist newspaper, it has since moderated to a milder centre-left political stance. It lately assumed a position and a generally supporting view of Democrat Prime Minister Matteo Renzi. La Repubblica was founded by Eugenio Scalfari, also director of the weekly magazine LEspresso, the publisher Carlo Caracciolo and Mondadori had invested 2.
The newspaper first went on sale on 14 January and it was presented as the first Italian tabloid with some sections such as sports and business intentionally left out.
When it was founded, it was intended to be a newspaper, with only major news at the national level. During the first two years, it built up a core-audience identified as members of the centre-left and the Italian Communist Party, inScalfari decided to cater to the university student movement, so la Repubblica began its expansion.
The strength of the newspaper lay particularly in the comments section. In the meantime, Giampaolo Pansa from Corriere della Sera became Deputy Director, alongside Rocca, in earlyaverage sales amounted tocopies.
The papers stance proved popular and, by the end of the year, inwith an average print run ofcopies, it achieved a break-even point. The size of the newspaper increased with page count growing from 20 to 24, the newspaper decided to cover sports for the first time and veteran reporter Gianni Brera was added.
Inthe Corriere della Sera was hit by a scandal when chief editor Franco Di Bella was outed as a member of the masonic lodge Propaganda Due. This allowed La Repubblica to win extra readers and recruit a number of commentators such as Enzo Biagi. Aiming to gain top circulation in Italy, chief editor Scalfari launched new reader-friendly initiatives, there were now 40 pages, including news sections, entertainment and sport.
The newspaper was pitched as an omnibus newspaper and this seemed to pay off as in la Repubblica sold an average ofcopies, aboutmore than in Variety magazine — Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.
The last daily printed edition was put out on March 19, Variety originally reported on theater and vaudeville. Variety has been published since December 16, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City, on January 19, Variety published what is considered the first film review in history.
InSime Silverman launched Daily Variety, based in Hollywood, Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement inhe remained as publisher until his death in soon after launching the Daily.
His son Sidne Silverman, known as Skigie, succeeded him as publisher of both publications, both Sidne and his wife, stage actress Marie Saxon, died of tuberculosis.
Their only son Syd Silverman, bornwas the heir to what was then Variety Inc. From mid toTimothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter, in OctoberEller and Wallenstein were upped to Co-Editors in Chief, with Littleton continuing to oversee the trades television coverage.
This dissemination comes in the form of columns, news stories, images, video, Cahners Publishing purchased Variety from the Silverman family in On December 7, Barts predecessor, Roger Watkins, proposed, upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front. In October, Jay Penske announced that the paywall would come down, the print publication would stay. A significant portion of the advertising revenue comes during the film-award season leading up to the Academy Awards.
During this Awards Season, large numbers of colorful, full-page For Your Consideration advertisements inflate the size of Variety to double or triple its usual page count, paid circulation for the weekly Variety magazine in was 40, Each copy of each Variety issue is read by an average of three people, with a total readership ofHe works mainly in the cinema of Argentina, but has worked in the United States. Puenzo was born in Buenos Aires in and he began a successful career in producing television advertising spots in Argentina.
Since his symptoms did not seem to resemble those of the plague, Rieux records his death as a "doubtful case. The Prefect believes at first that the talk of plague is a false alarm, but on the advice of his medical association, he authorizes limited measures to combat it.
When these do not work, he tries to avoid responsibility, saying he will ask the government for orders. After this, he does take responsibility for tightening up the regulations relating to the plague and issues the order to close the town. Raymond Rambert is a journalist who is visiting Oran to research a story on living conditions in the Arab quarter of the town.
When the plague strikes, he finds himself trapped in a city with which he feels he has no connection. He misses his wife who is in Paris, and he uses all his ingenuity and resourcefulness to persuade the city bureaucracy to allow him to leave. When this fails, he contacts smugglers, who agree to help him to escape for a fee of ten thousand francs. But there is a hitch in the arrangements, and by the time another escape plan is arranged, Rambert has changed his mind.
He decides to stay in the city and continue to help fight the plague, saying that he would feel ashamed of himself if he pursued a merely private happiness.
He now feels that he belongs in Oran and that the plague is everyone's business, including his. Raoul is the man who agrees, for a fee of ten thousand francs, to arrange for Rambert to escape.
He introduces Rambert to Gonzales. Richard is chairman of the Oran Medical Association. He is slow to recommend any action to combat the plague, not wanting to arouse public alarm. He does not even want to admit that the disease is the plague, referring instead to a "special type of fever. Bernard Rieux is the narrator of the novel, although this is only revealed at the end.
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Tarrou describes him as about thirty-five-years-old, of moderate height, dark-skinned, with close-cropped black hair. At the beginning of the novel, Rieux's wife, who has been ill for a year, leaves for a sanatorium. It is Rieux who treats the first victim of plague and who first uses the word plague to describe the disease. He urges the authorities to take action to stop the spread of the epidemic.
However, at first, along with everyone else, the danger the town faces seems unreal to him. He feels uneasy but does not realize the gravity of the situation. Within a short while, he grasps what is at stake and warns the authorities that unless steps are taken immediately, the epidemic could kill off half the town's population of two hundred thousand within a couple of months. During the epidemic, Rieux heads an auxiliary hospital and works long hours treating the victims.
He injects serum and lances the abscesses, but there is little more that he can do, and his duties weigh heavily upon him. He never gets home until late, and he has to distance himself from the natural pity that he feels for the victims; otherwise, he would not be able to go on.
It is especially hard for him when he visits a victim in the person's home, because he knows that he must immediately call for an ambulance and have the person removed from the house. Often the relatives plead with him not to do this, since they know they may never see the person again. Rieux works to combat the plague simply because he is a doctor and his job is to relieve human suffering.
He does not do it for any grand, religious purpose, like Paneloux Rieux does not believe in Godor as part of a high-minded moral code, like Tarrou. He is a practical man, doing what needs to be done without any fuss, even though he knows that the struggle against death is something that he can never win.
Rieux's mother, who comes to stay with him when his sick wife goes to the sanatorium. She is a serene woman who, after taking care of the housework, sits quietly in a chair.
She says that at her age there is nothing much left to fear. Jean Tarrou arrived in Oran some weeks before the plague broke out, for unknown reasons.
He is not there on business, since he appears to have private means. Tarrou is a good-natured man who smiles a lot. Before the plague came, he liked to associate with the Spanish dancers and musicians in the city. He also keeps a diary, full of his observations of life in Oran, which Rieux incorporates into the narrative. It is Tarrou who first comes up with the idea of organizing teams of volunteers to fight the plague.
He wants to do this before the authorities begin to conscript people, and he does not like the official plan to get prisoners to do the work. He takes action, prompted by his own code of morals; he feels that the plague is everybody's responsibility and that everyone should do his or her duty.
What interests him, he tells Rieux, is how to become a saint, even though he does not believe in God. Later in the novel, Tarrou tells Rieux, with whom he has become friends, the story of his life.
His father, although a kind man in private, was also an aggressive prosecuting attorney who tried death penalty cases, arguing strongly for the death penalty to be imposed. As a young boy, Tarrou attended one day of a criminal proceeding in which a man was on trial for his life. However, the idea of capital punishment disgusted him. After he left home before the age of eighteen, his main interest in life was his opposition to the death penalty, which he regarded as state-sponsored murder.
However, years of activism, and fighting for the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War have left him disillusioned. When the plague epidemic is virtually over, Tarrou becomes one of its last victims, but puts up a heroic struggle before dying. Themes Absurdism Absurdism is the search for a meaning to life without being unable to find one. This is similar to nihilism, where one assumes there is no meaning to life. Exile and separation The theme of exile and separation is embodied in two characters, Rieux and Rambert, both of whom are separated from the women they love.
The theme is also present in the many other nameless citizens who are separated from loved ones in other towns or from those who happened to be out of town when the gates of Oran were closed. In another sense, the entire town feels in exile, since it is completely cut off from the outside world. Rieux, as the narrator, describes what exile meant to them all: That sensation of a void within which never left us, that irrational longing to hark back to the past or else to speed up the march of time, and those keen shafts of memory that stung like fire.
Some, like Rambert, are exiles in double measure since they are not only cut off from those they want to be with but they do not have the luxury of being in their own homes. The feeling of exile produces many changes in attitudes and behaviors. At first, people indulge in fantasies, imagining the missing person's return, but then they start to feel like prisoners, drifting through life with nothing left but the past, since they do not know how long into the future their ordeal may last.
And the past smacks only of regret, of things left undone. Living with the sense of abandonment, they find that they cannot communicate their private grief to their neighbors, and conversations tend to be superficial. Rieux returns to the theme at the end of the novel, after the epidemic is over, when the depth of the feelings of exile and deprivation is clear from the overwhelming joy with which long parted lovers and family members greet each other.
For some citizens, exile was a feeling more difficult to pin down. They simply desired a reunion with something that could hardly be named but which seemed to them to be the most desirable thing on Earth. Some called it peace. Rieux numbers Tarrou among such people, although he found it only in death.
This understanding of exile suggests the deeper, metaphysical implications of the term. It relates to the loss of the belief that humans live in a rational universe in which they can fulfill their hopes and desires, find meaning, and be at home. As Camus put it in The Myth of Sisyphus, "In a universe that is suddenly deprived of illusions and of light, man feels a stranger. His is an irremediable exile. The plague comes unannounced and may strike down anyone at any time.
It is arbitrary and capricious, and it leaves humans in a state of fear and uncertainty, which ends only in death. In the face of this metaphysical reality, what must be the response of individuals? Should they resign themselves to it, accept it as inevitable, and seek what solace they can as individuals, or should they join with others and fight back, even though they must live with the certainty that they cannot win?
Camus's answer is clearly the latter, embodied in the characters of Rieux, Rambert, and Tarrou. Rieux's position is made clear in part II in a conversation with Tarrou. Rieux argues that one would have to be a madman to submit willingly to the plague. Rather than accepting the natural order of things — the presence of sickness and death — he believes one must fight against them. He is aware of the needs of the community; he does not live for himself alone. When Tarrou points out that "[his] victories will never be lasting," Rieux admits that he is involved in a "never ending defeat," but this does not stop him from engaging in the struggle.
Rieux is also aware that working for the common good demands sacrifice; he cannot expect personal happiness. This is a lesson that Rambert learns. At first he insists that he does not belong in Oran, and his only thought is returning to the woman he loves in Paris.
He thinks only of his own personal happiness and the unfairness of the situation in which he has been placed but gradually comes to recognize his membership in a larger human community, which makes demands on him that he cannot ignore. Ultimately he realizes he cannot face his lover if it is as a coward. Tarrou lives according to an ethical code that demands that he act in a way that benefits the whole community, even though, in this case, he risks his life by doing so.
For Tarrou, plague is the destructive impulse within every person, the will and the capacity to do harm, and it is everyone's duty to be on guard against this tendency within themselves, lest they infect someone else with it.
He describes his views to Rieux: What's natural is the microbe. All the rest — health, integrity, purity if you like — is a product of the human will, of a vigilance that must never falter. The good man, the man who infects hardly anyone, is the man who has the fewest lapses of attention.
Religion In times of calamity, people often turn to religion, and Camus examines this response in the novel. In contrast to the humanist beliefs of Rieux, Rambert, and Tarrou, the religious perspective is given in the sermons of the stern Jesuit priest, Father Paneloux. While the other main characters believe there is no rational explanation for the outbreak of plague, Paneloux believes there is. In his first sermon, given during the first month of the plague, Paneloux describes the epidemic as the "flail of God," through which God separates the wheat from the chaff, the good from the evil.
Paneloux is at pains to emphasize that God did not will the calamity: The divine light can still be seen even in the most catastrophic events, and a Christian hope is granted to all.
Paneloux's argument is based on the theology of St. Augustine, on which he is an expert, and it is accepted as irrefutable by many of the townspeople, including the magistrate, Othon. But it does not satisfy Rieux. Camus carefully manipulates the plot to bring up the question of innocent suffering.
Paneloux may argue that the plague is a punishment for sin, but how does he reconcile that doctrine with the death of a child? The child in question is Philippe Othon, and Paneloux, along with Rieux and Tarrou, witnesses his horrible death.
Paneloux is moved with compassion for the child, and he takes up the question of innocent suffering in his second sermon. He argues that because a child's suffering is so horrible and cannot easily be explained, it forces people into a crucial test of faith: We must yield to the divine will, he says; we cannot pick and choose and accept only what we can understand.
But we must still seek to do what good lies in our power as Paneloux himself does as one of the volunteers who fights the plague. The second sermon given by Paneloux, however, suggests that his faith has been shaken. Unable to reconcile his beliefs with the death of the child, Paneloux becomes sick and refuses to be treated.
His illness is not consistent with the symptoms of the plague, and the inexplicable nature of the illness leads Rieux to diagnose him as a "doubtful case". He leaves his fate in the hands of God, and he dies clinging to his cross and the remnants of his beliefs. The implication is that Paneloux's loss of faith is what leads to his death. Paneloux's death is in contrast to Tarrou's, who fights valiantly against death when his turn comes.
The fight Tarrou puts up against his end is emblematic of the fight against the plague and the absurdity of the universe. The criticism of Paneloux, is that he, unlike Tarrou, has lost his faith in humanity. He chooses, instead, to cling to a hollow ideal he no longer believes, and his death, in contrast to Tarrou's, does not bring him peace.
It is clear that Camus's sympathy in this contrast of ideas lies with Rieux and Tarrou. Style Point of view This story is told through the character Rieux.
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However, Rieux does not function as a first-person narrator. Rather he disguises himself, referring to himself in the third person and only at the end of the novel reveals who he is. The novel thus appears to be told by an unnamed narrator who gathers information from what he has personally seen and heard regarding the epidemic, as well as from the diary of another character, Tarrou, who makes observations about the events he witnesses.
The reason Rieux does not declare himself earlier is that he wants to give an objective account of the events in Oran. He deliberately adopts the tone of an impartial observer. Rieux is like a witness who exercises restraint when called to testify about a crime; he describes what the characters said and did, without speculating about their thoughts and feelings, although he does offer generalized assessments of the shifting mood of the town as a whole.
Rieux refers to his story as a chronicle, and he sees himself as a historian, which justifies his decision to stick to the facts and avoid subjectivity.
This also explains why the style of The Plague often gives the impression of distance and detachment. Only rarely is the reader drawn directly into the emotions of the characters or the drama of the scene. Allegory An allegory is a narrative with two distinct levels of meaning. The first is the literal level; the second signifies a related set of concepts and events.
The Plague is in part a historical allegory, in which the plague signifies the German occupation of France from to during World War II. The town Oran, which gets afflicted by pestilence and cut off from the outside world, is the equivalent of France.
Camus draws from his own experience of isolation during the war in writing The Plague. They could not imagine that the Germans, whom they had defeated only twenty years previously, could defeat them in a mere six weeks, as happened when France fell in June The different attitudes of the characters reflect different attitudes in the French population during the occupation.