The term “date” makes more sense when talking about American people Out of the many countries where people practice online dating, the. Western cultures are presented by USA, which was the first online dating market Subsequently, an overview of the online dating market and different types of. US households reporting computer and internet connection. . This study manipulates aspects of internet dating that separate it from.
In India, approximately 80 percent of marriages are still arranged and couples do not date until the the arrangement has been made. Dating Multiples In American culture, it is perfectly acceptable to play the field and date several people at once. Dating is just as much of a social outing as it is a means to meet a prospective mate.
In East Indian cultures, monogamy among married couples is the standard and dating is not typically allowed until a marriage has been agreed to. Most Indian people only date this one person their whole lives. Exceptions are made in larger, more westernized cities such as Delhi and Mumbai where males and females have more interaction with each other before marriage.
Promiscuity In most American dating cultures, promiscuity is the social norm. Schools are separate for boys and girls in this country, and they are even forbidden to go outside past a certain hour, for girls the curfew time is at 7: In Iran, people are even stricter as dating is completely illegal.
Teens spend their life separated until they reach the appropriate age set for marriage. Afterwards, their families make the introductions and on rare occasions, the event is followed by a period of courtship. In Central and South America, teens are not allowed to date until they are at least 15 years old. Dating takes place in large groups, hence it is a common occurrence for teens to go out together in local clubs, to eat and chat, or to go dancing at weekend dance parties.
In most Asian countries young people do not leave the house they grew up in until they are married. Chinese people get married a lot faster than couples from other countries, most dates never reaching a number higher than one or two. As people can see, differences in dating customs are highly influenced by religion and parental control, but in America, dating is rather conventional and movie-like.
A live in a much more relaxed society where they can be themselves and behave unconstrained by their parents or religious traditions. It has to be considered that studies of Western, Westernized or Eastern cultures mostly reach social groups that are modern, urban and affluent.
As this thesis is written from a Western point of view, some chapters about Eastern cultures appear more detailed than the Western equivalent. It might be opposite if the author were from Eastern cultural origin: Subsequently, an overview of the online dating market and different types of online dating are provided.
After describing the methodology of empirical research, the actual subject of this study, online dating websites in USA, Germany, India and Japan, is presented in according subchapters. Each subchapter starts with a short introduction about the country itself and selected cultural characteristics. The core of this thesis presents the findings of the empirical research by analysing and comparing profile information of different dating websites in relation to culture, indicating cultural similarities and highlighting cultural differences.
The conclusion involves important outcomes and provides prospects to further research issues. Nowadays, it commonly refers to civilizationorrefinement of the mindincluding knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, heroes, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions shared by a group of people in the course of generations, and which distinguishes them from another.
Culture also means a way of life: Hofstede pictured four terms to describe manifestations of culture as skins of an onion: They are culturally fundamental convictions acquired early in lives and deal with pairings, such as right versus wrong, decent versus indecent, moral versus immoral, abnormal versus normal, and dirty versus clean.
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As meanings of symbols, heroes and rituals, the values often remain unconscious and can only be inferred from the way people act under different circumstances.
Everyone carries within himself or herself patterns of thinking, feeling and potential acting. Most noticeably, he developed the theory of cultural dimensions, which indicates national and regional cultural groups influencing behaviour of societies and organizations.
His study is based on the concept of national cultures, which does not focus on states as legal and political delimitation, but as nations. But states are the only relevant foundation for researching cultural differences, because of detailed different statistics about their population, which are kept by governments and appropriate for cultural research.
Between and Hofstede studied a large body of survey data about values of employees at 72 IBM subsidiaries from more than 40 countries in the world. They presented almost perfect samples, as they were similar in all respects except nationality. Therefore, every statistically researched nation could be indicated on a scale of the relevant dimension, and, be comparable with other nations and their cultures; cultural differences were visualized.
His model ofCultural dimensionsis regarded as one of the most comprehensive works and important studies of cross-cultural analysis. Originally, it includes the following 4 cultural dimensions: Later, Hofstede added a fifth and sixth cultural dimension: Thesecultural dimensions correlate significantly with demographical, economical and geographical indicators national culture.
In the following, the author details only 1 of 6 dimensions, which she regarded as the most relevant for online dating. In individualistic cultures, independence, self-realization, individual rights and decision making is more valued. Personal identity is defined by individual attributes. Relationships in individualism are neither obvious nor prearranged. They are voluntarily and have to be fostered. In individualistic countries, children grow up innuclearfamilies consisting of two parents sometimes even only one parent.
Collectivism involves the subordination of individual goals to the goals of a collective. Personal privacy is reduced; social norms and duty as defined by the in-group are over the pursuit of personal pleasure. Children are born into complex family structures ofextendedfamilies, where parents, grandparents and other relatives live closely together. A survey questioning students from collectivist cultures revealed the following values being particularly important: Today, individualism-collectivism is viewed as one of the most important sources of cultural differences in social behaviour.
Therefore, the author chose only this cultural dimension to establish her empirical research. Regarding intercultural communication, Hall focused on the contextin communications, which describes the information surrounding an event.
He distinguishes two different contexts: The two concepts describe acquisition and processing of information in cultural networks, especially a strong or weak referring context in communication.
Acknowledgement of the information is implicitly expected. Mentioning the details could be regarded negatively. Furthermore, use of silence, behaviour, and paraverbal cues articulation, intonation, speed, voice characteristics, and volume imply a message through what is not said.
Germany, Scandinavia, and USAinformation is not expected being already acknowledged or recognized without specific verbalism. Contrary to Asian cultures, in Western cultures it is an established notion that self- disclosure typically reduces uncertainty about others and increases interpersonal trust.
People in individualistic cultures verbalize and negotiate their individual wants and needs with a strong self-assertion focus.GLOBAL RELATIONSHIPS: Intercultural couples talk about dating
In contrast, communal, collectivistic people are more circumspective and discreet in voicing their opinions and feelings concerning interpersonal relationships because of a strong communal orientation focus. Indeed, local cultures, politics, community, Internet use, social shaping of technology, and language influence and shape online communication. Cross-cultural comparisons of website contents indicate that cultural values are reflected in online communication styles.
But in most other cultures, mate selection and romantic beliefs of love and marriage are different. Love distinguishes in its connotations in many cultures. There are two types of love known as a valid conceptualization: It is characterized as a warm feeling of affection and tenderness involving shared values, deep attachment, long-term commitment, and psychological intimacy within the meaning of open and honest talks with a partner about personal thoughts and feelings, which are usually not expressed in other relationships.
Definition of and susceptibility to love, choice of love partner and progress of a relationship are culturally affected. Societies vary in their attitude toward love and its importance. In individualistic culturespassionate loveis highly emphasized.
They value closeness, intimacy and free individual emotional expression. A committed relationship is regarded as a consequence of romantic love, which is the most important factor for marriage.
Collectivistic societies, due to its strong kinship networks and extended-family ties, view passionate love as negative. Love in its passionate meaning is clearly associated with freedom of choices. But when selecting the potential spouse, it is expected to take into account the wishes of parents and other family members. Collectivistic people think passionate love relationships may disrupt the tradition of family-approved and arranged marriage-choices. Romantic relationships often connote necessary seriousness and long-term commitment.
An individual needs to consider the obligations to the parents and family.
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As people have to respect the opinions of their relatives, selection of marriage partner is a crucial event for both partners, but also for their families. Arranged marriages are rather based on compatibility of the two families i. Although this marriage may not be based on romantic love, it is believed that couples in arranged marriages would develop companionate love for each other. Studies revealed that love was more important for marriages in cultures, where economic interdependences between spouses were weak.
Assuming a priori that extended- family ties are stronger in Japan, attitudes toward love among college students in Japan were compared to those of college students in the United States and in Germany.
In the Japanese sample, romantic love was least highly valued. Many studies state love as an important predictor of happiness. One concept of happiness defined by scholars issubjective well-being, which consist oflife satisfactionandemotions.
Interestingly, in collectivistic cultures, long-life commitment and cultural tradition are more likely related to marital satisfaction than psychological intimacy in terms of reciprocal self-disclosure, sharing activities, and revealing strong personal feelings.
Meeting, falling in love, deciding to marry or cohabit is a typical, familiar depiction of an intimate relationship developing between man and woman. It reflects universally shared assumptions about the nature of intimate, opposite-sex relationships. But they have not always prevailed. Untilin Western cultures, which are more or less individualistic cultures today, political and religious authorities generally viewed passionate love as a threat to the social, political, and religious order, and they attempted to suppress such feelings.
Marriage was primarily an economic arrangement between two families. Romeo and Juliet,a tragedy written by Shakespeare an famous English playwright of the Renaissance is still one of the most popular love stories in the Western world. Collectivistic values with their predominant, pragmatic marriage decisions moved to individualistic ones, where romantic love became the guiding force in marriage decisions. Passionate and romantic love, marriage for love, intimacy, and sexual freedom for men and women are now highly valued.
Today, societies of the non-Western world are currently undergoing similar transitions. As they achieve economic prosperity out of traditionally collectivist value system, they now appear to be moving closer to Western style individualism.
Regarding the last century, marriage rates in America and Europe fell during economic crisis America and Europe in the s and recovered as the economy did. Peculiarly, marriage rates in Asia have been eroding during the last long boom. Reaching millions of people, the Internet has helped the online dating industry to prosper to a multibillion-dollar love story for e-commerce customers, whose needs were not properly met under traditional matchmaking methods.
These Internet dating services facilitate connections that may eventually lead to face-to-face contact and in-person relationships. They create new market places, where available supply and demand equals, as registered users advertise themselves while they are also seeking for a partner.