Juan Santos Atahualpa - Wikipedia
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This in turn led to the viceroy of Lima sending out General Jose de Llamasa seasoned veteran, to crush the revolt. This too was unsuccessful and the general and his men suffered constant defeats at the hands of the rebels. In Atahualpa and his men left the lowlands and seized the mountain city of Andamarca in the highlands of Jauja province.
Although he and his men retreated back to the lowlands three days later, it seemed to have frightened the Viceroy. The assault on the highlands forced the viceroy of Lima to place Tarma and Jauja into the hands of military governors, who built a defensive string of fortresses to keep Atahualpa's rebellion from spreading beyond the region. Juan Santos Atahualpa died sometime between and of unknown causes. Following his death his rebellion remained contained to Tarma and Jauja.
Spanish authorities were not able to re-exert control over the region until the s when merchants and missionaries didnt returned References[ edit ] Andean Worlds: University of New Mexico Press. Although by this time Diego de Almagro had already acquired sufficient wealth in the conquest of Peru and was living a luxurious life in Cuzco, the prospect of conquering the lands further south was very attractive to him.
Given that the dispute with Pizarro over Cuzco had kept intensifying, Almagro spent a great deal of time and money equipping a company of men for a new exploration south of Peru.
The crown had previously assigned Almagro the governorship of Cuzco, and as such De Almagro was heading there when Charles V divided the territory between Nueva Castilla and Nuevo Toledo. This might have been the reason why Almagro did not immediately confront Pizarro for Cuzco, and promptly decided to embark on his new quest for the discovery of the riches of Chile.
Francisco and Diego concluded a new contract on 12 Junein which they agreed to share future discoveries equally. Diego raised an expedition for Chile, expecting it "would lead to even greater riches than they had found in Peru. De Almagro sent Juan de Saavedra forward with one hundred and fifty men, and soon followed them with additional forces.
Meanwhile, Francisco Pizarro's brother, Juan Pizarro, had arrested Inca Manco Inca Yupanquifurther complicating De Almagro's plans as it heavily increased the dissatisfaction of the Indians submitted to Spanish rule. Not having formally been appointed governor of any territories in the Capitulation of Toledo inhowever, forcing him to declare himself adelantado governor of Nueva Toledo, or southern Peru and present-day Chile. Some sources suggest Almagro received such a requirement in by the Spanish king and was officially declared governor of New Toledo.
Once he left Moina, De Almagro followed the Inca trail followed by Spaniards deciding to join him in quest for the gold lost in the ransom of Atahualpawhich had mainly benefited the Pizarro brothers and their supporters.
After crossing the Bolivian mountain range and traveling past Lake TiticacaAlmagro arrived on the shores of the Desaguadero River and finally set up camp in Tupiza. From there, the expedition stopped at Chicoana and then turned to the southeast to cross the Andes mountains. The expedition turned out to be a difficult and exhausting endeavor. The hardest phase was the crossing of the Andean cordilleras: He ordered a small group under Rodrigo Orgonez on a reconnaissance of the country to the south.
Dismayed in Chile[ edit ] Statue of De Almagro in Almagro, Spain De Almagro promptly initiated the exploration of the new territory, starting up the valley the Aconcagua Riverwhere he was well received by the natives. However, the intrigues of his interpreter, Felipillowho had previously helped Pizarro in dealing with Atahualpaalmost thwarted De Almagro's efforts. Felipillo had secretly urged the local natives to attack the Spanish, but they desisted, not understanding the dangers that they posed.
He never found gold or the cities which Incan scouts had told him lay ahead, only communities of the indigenous population who lived from subsistence agriculture. Local tribes put up fierce resistance to the Spanish forces.
The exploration of the territories of Nueva Toledo, which lasted 2 years, was marked by a complete failure for De Almagro. Despite this, at first he thought staying and founding a city would serve well for his honor. Some historians have suggested that, but for the urging of his senior explorers, De Almagro would probably have stayed permanently in Chile. He was urged to return to Peru and this time take definitive possession of Cuzcoso as to consolidate an inheritance for his son.
Dismayed with his experience in the south, Almagro made plans of return to Peru. Explorer Christopher Columbus described them at first encounter as a peaceful people, although the Arawak had already dominated other local groups such as the Ciboney. The Arawak had, however, come under increasing military pressure from the Caribwho are believed to have left the Orinoco river area to settle on islands and the coast of the Caribbean Sea.
Over the century leading up to Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean archipelago inthe Carib are believed to have displaced many of the Arawak who previously settled the island chains.
The Carib also encroached on Arawak territory in what is modern Guyana. The Carib were skilled boatbuilders and sailors who owed their dominance in the Caribbean basin to their military skills. The Carib war rituals included cannibalism ; they had a practice of taking home the limbs of victims as trophies.
These authorized the European Christian nations to "take possession" of non-Christian lands and encouraged subduing and converting the non-Christian people of Africa and the Americas.
Juan santos atahualpa yahoo dating
Through the treaty, they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line which is now known to include most of the South American soilwould belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.
Because accurate measurements of longitude were not possible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. Amazed by the great offshore current of freshwater which deflected his course eastward, Columbus expressed in his moving letter to Isabella I and Ferdinand II that he must have reached heaven on Earth terrestrial paradise: Great signs are these of the Terrestrial Paradise, for the site conforms to the opinion of the holy and wise theologians whom I have mentioned.
And likewise, the [other] signs conform very well, for I have never read or heard of such a large quantity of fresh water being inside and in such close proximity to salt water; the very mild temperateness also corroborates this; and if the water of which I speak does not proceed from Paradise then it is an even greater marvel, because I do not believe such a large and deep river has ever been known to exist in this world.
These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies. Lower bound estimates speak of a decline in the population of around 20—50 percent, whereas high estimates arrive at 90 percent. However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful; American groups simply blended Catholicism with their traditional beliefs.
The Spaniards did not impose their language to the degree they did their religion. In fact, the missionary work of the Roman Catholic Church in QuechuaNahuatland Guarani actually contributed to the expansion of these American languages, equipping them with writing systems. Mestizos and the Native Americans were often forced to pay unfair taxes to the Spanish government although all subjects paid taxes and were punished harshly for disobeying their laws.
Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers.
juan santos atahualpa yahoo dating
This included a great number of gold and silver sculptures, which were melted down before transport to Europe. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message Inthe Dutch, attracted by the legend of El Doradofounded a fort in Guayana and established three colonies: