TENDENCIAS, Vol. XII, No.1 - [PDF Document]
Se parte de la hipótesis de que las narrativas del "yo" . Con fines de operacionalización, fueron seleccionados nueve sujetos1 que mejor se date. The series receives a novel form of audiovisual narrative refiere a ambos lados del océano pues Yahoo! distribuyó de forma gratuita para móviles y. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal (por citar los más relevantes) consideran seriamente la hipótesis que la difusión Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio ( RadioRai Uno, llevar a confusión e inequidades al momento de su operacionalización. Relatively few papers to date have attempted to measure the equity market's reaction to to March 26, downloaded from afrocolombianidad.info La hipótesis del estudio es: la estrategia medioambiental avanzada de las micro que permita operacionalizar la perspectiva Aprendizaje y Crecimiento en un.
That in itself raises another question: How may we combine democracy and transparency with that necessary protection? It is one of the apparent parodoxes that we must discuss. Ugarte is the first author to recognize that in Latin America the intelligence services have not been under effective control, and that we must necessarily change this abnormal situation.
His proposal for professionalism is valuable and realistic: Javier Ulises Ortiz makes a substantial conceptual contribution when he explains critical information infrastructure CIIand why it is important. CII includes information resources, and thus represents a new challenge to intelligence: All matters relating to CI must be defined carefully because terrorist or criminal organizations may or may not seek to infiltrate our state institutions.
That is the CI mission. This is yet another challenge ahead of us. The present author agrees with his proposal that since terrorism is a new actor on the world stage, it must be combatted with the participation of all potential contributors to bring about its defeat.
This is a challenge with which the present author has personal experience. Lemozy proposes that applied science or social technology instruments offer intelligence professionals not only the ability to understand, but also to modify reality; not only to understand human behavior but also to influence that behavior. To be able to achieve these ends, intelligence must behave scientifically.
It follows that intelligence should consider itself an applied science. The way in which she examines threats is very useful. She sees threats becoming more diverse and problem complexity increasing with the greater number of variables that must be taken into account, which explains why intelligence is acquiring increasing value within government management circles.
This point is something that leaders, and especially ordinary citizens, must understand to justify support for their intelligence services, their first line of defense.
Her proposal to apply national intelligence to national strategy has utility, because the ultimate purpose of intelligence is political action to fulfill national interests for the benefit of all citizens.
Strategies of Ten Countries, Yonah Alexander, ed. The University of Michigan Press,; see especially They also add that intelligence activity is more relevant the closer it is to the core of decisionmaking concerning security, defense and foreign policy. The criteria they propose for discerning whether professionalism exists in a country are in general agreement with the criteria proposed and employed elsewhere in this volume: They are there to serve and protect the public.
Essays by two authors from Mexico recognize the lack of an ethical intelligence professionalism that has persevered in their country until recently.
For proof, we need look no further than at the strategic surprise represented by the Zapatista uprising of His compatriot Manuel I. Balcazar Villareal also criticizes the politicization that existed in Mexican intelligence activities, and he proposes as a definition of government intelligence the gathering of vital and strategic information to promote the selection of the best alternative from among those a government official has available when it comes time to make a governance decision.
Of course, intelligence involves not only information gathering, but also analysis. In the age of the Internet, intelligence services do not lack information-gathering capabilities, but they do lack improved analytical capabilities. This idea is innovative because traditionally the executive branch and the operational intelligence organisms have been considered the only possible consumers. Any congress needs intelligence-refined information — with added value — to be better at legislating.
Intelligence would allow congressmen to understand better the reality they seek to modify through the laws that they create.
By the late s, one of the most dramatic and incredible parodoxes in regional political and military history occurred: Only the implosion of the Fujimori government brought this aberration to a halt. This is a case in point of what Count Alexandre of Marenches — who directed French intelligence through three presidential administrations between and — clearly pointed out in his memoirs: The author is right to insist that it is necessary to totally rebuild the intelligence apparatus, but the essay could better have focused on analyzing why things reached the point where rebuilding was necessary.
El rol del psicólogo en el ámbito de la salud mental. | Apsique
The present author does not agree with Andres Gomez that Peruvian intelligence lost prestige, because it did not have it in the first place. It was again an intelligence fiasco because the Peruvian secret services were more interested in following and harassing members of the political opposition than in prosecuting more appropriate targets.
He notes that very little propensity exists to generate policies in the intelligence sector, that would help in creating or retaining professionals. This criticism is correct, given that there has not yet occurred a national debate on this issue.
At the same time, political culture has been based on ambiguity and patronage, and there has been no public competition opened to applicants for employment in the intelligence field. Preparation for this kind of conflict requires breaking away from the traditional strategic mold that favors interstate conflicts. The greatest security threats to our countries in the coming years will emanate, for the most part — although we can never discard the possibility of traditional conflict — from internal non-state actors who are ideologically motivated and strategically allied to similar foreign actors, and in addition, possibly supported by transnational criminal organizations.
This kind of threat requires another kind of intelligence service, emphasizing professional collectors and analysts. His criticism of the Peruvian Intelligence Law number 27, is also valid, although the present author would have gone a little further: In practical terms, the law brings us back to a still-earlier system that did not address the problem of intelligence decentralization in the country.
The problems arising from this lack of centralization became dramatically obvious in the fight against Sendero Luminoso and the MRTA. Carlos Maldonado Prieto recognizes the especially repressive reputation of Chilean intelligence activities between and It is illustrative to note how a recruiting process, promotion system, professional development plan and areas of responsibility have been clearly specified in Chilean laws and regulations.
She is right that the absence of such an institution can represent an obstacle to the development of true professionals. That is to say, this threat needs to be seen in terms of its strategic, asymmetric context. These are problems that other countries have faced in the past, or that they still face, as do we in Peru. Peruvian political scientist and Law School graduate.
He has published articles on national security topics in Peruvian newspapers and magazines and in Argentinean, British, and U. He authored the chapter on Peru in the book titled Combating Terrorism: Swenson con Susana C.
Esto significa que 14 Thomas C. Compilacion de Textos Guatemala City, Guatemala: Muchos de los problemas que han dado pie para criticar a la inteligencia se pueden atribuir a la falta de profesionalismo de los servicios de inteligencia Para Chile, see http: Palgrave,1.
Keller, The Liberals and J. Princeton University Press, HarperCollins,chapter 6. La idea de establecer la inteligencia militar como vanguardia del profesionalismo en inteligencia no es nueva.
Weber, Organization, Ethics London: Se espera de ellos que sean: The Pennsylvania State University Press, Frank Cass, Compilacion de Textos, The increase in tourism has increased pressure on the area, especially new tourist developments such as restaurants and hotels. The area is threatened by subsistence agriculture, logging, and land speculation. Monteverde, as a private reserve, was able to. Nature-oriented tourism in Costa Rica and Ecuador: The concept of nature-oriented tourism is widely perceived to be one in which the tourist is drawn to a destination because of his or her interest in one or more features of that destination's natural history.
The visit combines education with recreation. Opportunities for research and the promotion of this type of tourism are sought by examining: Recommendations are itemized under 3 headings: Cloud forests are unique biological entities providing a natural irrigation system for land at lower elevations.
They are being destroyed in the search for new agricultural lands and pressures from mounting human populations.
The forests are of high touristic value. This is demonstrated in countries such as Costa Rica and Puerto Rico which already have cloud-forest parks. Tres mapachines hembras adultas fueron marcadas con radio collares; y desde abril hasta diciembre de fueron ubicadas veces. El bosque fue utilizado pero no preferido. El principal alimento en las heces fue cangrejo C.
Communications Consultant, E 93, Apt. Ambio ISSNv. The Gulf of Nicoya is an estuarine embayment, special in formation, essential for the artisanal fishing industry of Costa Rica, and a popular tourist attraction. Unfortunately, pervasive environmental contamination and overfishing have lowered the productivity and tourism appeal of the Gulf tremendously.
Costa Ricans are just now beginning to look seriourly at the management of the area, despite many years of studies showing high levels of contamination. Wildlife conservation in Costa Rica: Advances in Comparative Psychology, v. The potential role of 'ecotourism' tours to rain forests and other ecosystems as a significant industry in the economy of tropical countries is discussed, and existing programmes in Costa Rica briefly described.
Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas Profesionalismo de
Tropical countries are also taking part in another 'eco-enterprise' - a combination of ecotourism and the export of exotic plants and animals to foreign markets. A particular example is the introduction of government-promoted butterfly farming to the villages of Papua New Guinea.
Museo de Insectos UCR. The search for solutions: Organization for Tropical Studies. California Academy of Sciences, California Academy of Sciences Memoir; no.
La Selva is the principal field station of the Organization for Tropical Studies, an international consortium of more than forty universities and museums, with the primary mission of encouraging research and teaching in tropical biology.
Tropical deforestation and the maintenance of tropical biological diversity are serious global issues. Much of the research carried out at La Selva is directly or indirectly contributing solutions to these problems.
La Selva is also a center for teaching tropical biology to a diverse array of students, from school children of the community to graduate-level biologists from many countries.
Biological stations in the tropics can contribute in important ways to ecodevelopment. The La Selva synergism of 9 research, teaching, ecotourism, and a broad base of institutional support offers one model for the development of a tropical biological station.
Tomo 1; Tomo 2 [National tourism development plan, An analysis is made of the tourist industry in Costa Rica and proposals for development suggested. Volume 1 includes an analysis of the existing situation the economy and tourism at the national and regional levels, tourist attractions, infrastructure, supply and demand of tourist goods and servicesand a marketing strategy for tourism development.
Volume 2 is concerned with obstacles and opportunities for tourism development, and presents a tourism development strategy which includes sectoral and regional proposals and specific action programmes. The plan defines guidelines by which the Costa Rican government can stimulate, promote and direct the development of the tourism sector at various levels.
Tourism is a well established industry in Costa Rica but has been depressed since the late s when it was overtaken by the intensive resort development in the Caribbean and by a deteriorating economic and political situation in Central America.
Arrivals in were onlyPanama has recently realised its tourism potential but shares with Costa Rica the difficult problem of dissociating itself in tourists' minds from the region's conflicts. Both countries are now pursuing new marketing strategies, with increased funding. En las regiones tropicales, los manglares proporcionan diversos bienes y servicios a la humanidad.
Su contenido posee dos partes fundamentales: BoxResearch Triangle Park, N. Southeastern Center for Forest Economics Research, A variety of nature-oriented activities in developing countries are offered by U. However, only a few countries are visited frequently. Average firm size is less than clients per year. The majority of nature-oriented tourists are between 31 and 50 years old representing various interests.
Nature-oriented tour operators often utilize rural accommodations for their clients. Marketing is one of the major limitations to business growth.
De igual forma, se da una serie de recomendaciones dirigidas al mejoramiento de las condiciones del Refugio, tanto para el aprovechamiento humano como para la fauna del lugar. Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales Costa Rica ; no. Biocenosis ISSNv. En este trabajo se discuten las diversas manifestaciones de la diversidad: Diversidad y turismo naturalistas. Geoistmo ISSNv. This document explores the 12 relationship between the Tortuguero National Park and the local community in the Northeastern of Costa Rica.
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- TENDENCIAS, Vol. XII, No.1
- El rol del psicólogo en el ámbito de la salud mental.
Based essentially on a detailed survey at the household level, the study considers the effects of the creation of the Park on the subsistence and commercial activities of the people of Tortuguero. The impact of tourism in the Park, and its potential role in the economic development of the community, are also taken into account and analyzed. The results of the survey seem to indicate that there has occurred a gradual deterioration in the livelihood system of the inhabitants in the decade that has followed the creation of the Park and with the increase of tourism, which benefits directly to but a few, and indirectly to a good many.
Algunas de sus conclusiones son: La pesca de la trucha: Sus tres objetivos principales son: Practically no information exists on the impact of human trampling on tropical rain forest vegetation. Three trails with varying periods of use and recovery were studied in a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Human impact on trailside plants was curvilinearly related to use, as found by other workers in temperate zone vegetation.
Recovery in a period of two years and eight months has been rapid, and herbs and seedlings were more abundant along the recovering trail than in undisturbed forest. The results imply that a shifting mosaic of trails, analogous to the mosaic created by light gaps, may be the best management technique to minimize the impact of human visitors in tropical rain forests. Sustainable environmental planning and management require effective integration of ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional elements.
This paper presents an integrative methodological framework for sustainable environmental planning and management which seeks to delineate and synthesize essential ecological information utilizing an integrative resource survey 14 method.
This method generates classifications of environmental significance and constraints. Areas of environmental significance and constraint are then linked to appropriate and acceptable resource management actions, implementation tools e.
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The integrative methodological framework was developed for application in the Rio Fortuna watershed in Costa Rica's Arenal Conservation Area. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land and resource uses, including biologically diverse and ecologically fragile protected areas, small-parcel agriculture, cattle ranching, and tourism. Ecotourism refers to tourists travelling to a nature site because of the amenity and recreational value derived from having contact with some aspect of the natural world.
While ecotourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon, very much of this growth is unsustainable. This article reviews why this unsustainability arises and how it can be avoided. The first section sets out an economic model of ecotourism as the utilization of open access to renewable natural sites. This model is used to demonstrate how open access can lead to both economic and environmental inefficiency. The second section examines management solutions to the open access problem.
This involves determining an owner of the site, either the state, or the local community, or a private group. This owner must then choose policy instruments to restrict open access. This involves choosing between price and quantity instruments, deciding how to reduce rent dissipation and determining whether to restrict total numbers of tourists or damage done per tourist.
The third section introduces case studies. This article examines the utilization of a ski lift in the Costa Rican rainforest as a way to help people, scientists and tourists alike, experience the wonders of a rainforest with the barest minimum of human impact on the environment. Ecotourism for sustainable development: Geojournal ISSNv.
This paper examines the rapidly growing phenomenon of ecotourism, focusing on a case study, the village of Tortuguero in Costa Rica, whose transformation reveals many of the conflicting interests in the development process. The local and national economic benefits of foreign tourism are evaluated in relation to the total costs of such tourism. It asks whether a high proportion of the tourist dollar goes to outsiders: The paper argues that its costs may be borne disproportionately by poor people, because not only do local people lose their resource base for farming, lumbering and mining, but they may also lose the subsidy from nature upon which their livelihood was based.
Furthermore the funding of basic services such as health care, education, food, and nutrition programmes may stagnate or shrink. Cultural degradation may also occur, as formerly isolated populations come into contact with affluent foreigners. While the Costa Rican government may have successfully protected endangered species and environments in the Tortuguero National Park, it has not been as successful at easing local people's transition from an economy based on resource extraction to one based on the preservation of ecosystems without the physical exploitation of 15 them.
Ecotourism can provide an alternative economic base, but community participation in the planning process is also essential for identifying the negative impacts on the people who live in areas undergoing ecotourism development. In Tortuguero, the income generated by the non-consumptive use of local resources now flows to the outsiders who bring the tourists to Tortuguero and provide their accommodation and other services.
Tourism, particularly ecotourism, can play a positive role in both economic development and conservation. Instead of accelerating habitat destruction, this form of tourism can sometimes slow it down. Ecotourism is a boom industry.
Wherever wildlife exists in a relatively undisturbed state, today's environmentally aware tourists are willing to pay large sums to see it. They also demand less in most cases in terms of facilities and are more prepared to adapt to local conditions. The article looks at the situation in Costa Rica which has a rich variety of plant and animal life and topography covering a relatively small area.
It is home to at least species of tree, species of flowering plants, species of mammal, species of bird, more than species of amphibian and an estimated 35 insect species. These protected areas are what ecotourists can help to save. The national parks are run by the government in close cooperation with the Costa Rica Tourist Board.
Pressure on land is intense, and the national parks are defended on the grounds that they attract tourists. Ecotourism has a short history in Costa Rica and is far from fully exploited. More than tour companies already exist, but only a fraction of their earnings are ploughed back into the national parks because the entrance fees are too low.
The industry is also hampered by a shortage of suitable accommodation. The situation looks set to change now, however, with a change of government imminent. There are plans to finance conservation more directly through tourism and to use tourism to preserve biological wealth, but it will be some time before the effects of this change of policy are seen. World Leisure and Recreation, v. In this paper the processes characterizing the concept of 'ecotourism development' are outlined.
Specific reference is made to the relevance of this theory to developing countries. Two case studies are examined within this context: The paper puts forward a thesis in which the transformation processes that occur within tourist areas are described as 'power play' scenarios. It is suggested that in these situations the numerous actors involved in tourism development use concepts like 'ecotourism' and 'sustainability' to defend or satisfy their own interests.
The case studies reveal that amongst these actors, there is no consensus about the precise meaning of the terms.
This reveals the importance of the social organization of decision making processes in determining the eventual outcome of these 'power plays'. In conclusion the paper attempts to relate the processes involved in ecotourism to the wider community and it is postulated that this outlook is to be commended, despite the ideological differences between the various actors involved, since it puts the issues of tourism impact firmly on to the planning agenda.
Biological impacts of ecotourism: Many conservationists and wildlife managers have embraced ecotourism as an economic incentive for protecting species and ecosystems in developing countries. Ecotourism destinations often involve extremely fragile ecosystems or endangered or threatened wildlife. Yet ecotourists may be potentially more damaging to wildlife than other tourists since they actively seek and approach wildlife.
Information is needed to identify, monitor and mitigate the negative effects, both individual and cumulative, on the fauna and flora. The article reports on a study which was designed to help develop a programme to minimize the potential tourist impacts on nesting turtles in Tortuguero National Park in Costa Rica.