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I will address this question further. We note that their geographic distribution is more related to the Atlantic slope and coast. As for the rest, they were found both in mountainous environments and coastal plains, just as the remains of the Clovis culture.
Fishtail point found near Orange Walk, in Belize. Drawing taken from MacNeish and Nelken-Terner a: On the other hand, as he did with the Clovis material, Michael Faught establishes analogies between the Fishtail points of Central America and the Folsom industry, which would imply, according to him, contacts between people Faught Of the 26 Fishtail points sometimes in the condition of small fragments reported in Central America, 4 have been found without an archaeological control, 14 during reconnaissances, and 5 in the course of excavations in Los Grifos; BAAR 26, in Belize; Aguadulce, Corona, and Los Vampiros, in Panama.
I have already mentioned, above, the contextual problems that exist in Los Grifos and Los Vampiros; in Corona, the layer in which the Fishtail point have been uncovered was also perturbed Cooke and Ranere b: Only at the excavated sites, which seem to be all camps, could the points be clearly associated with other Paleoindian remains.
These ones include -apart from the Clovis point of Los Grifos- cores, flakes, retouched flakes, endscrapers, sidescrapers, a limace preform at Los Grifosblades and burins.
Few absolute dates provide, for this material, a modest chronological frame. The coexistence of both traditions in specific sites Objects of the Clovis and Fishtail traditions only coexist in four sites: The formation of the artificial lake must have moved the archaeological materials over considerable distances Bird and Cooke For the aforementioned zone as for the Ladyville 1 site, the available data do not allow to determine the historical relationships that could have existed between the Clovis and Fishtail points: In Turrialba, the situation is not clearer, but according to Pearson On the other hand, in Los Grifos as in Los Vampiros, artifacts of the two targeted traditions have been uncovered together, in one single stratigraphic zone.
We could then suppose that they are contemporaneous, or at least chronologically close to one another. Nevertheless, the contextual problems already mentioned force us to remain cautious, on this subject. Additionally, in Los Grifos, the dating obtained for the concerned stratigraphic zone leads to speculation, because it is much later than the chronological frame generally accepted for the Clovis and Fishtail traditions. However, the chronology which has been established for the initial occupation of the rock shelter of Santa Marta, located about m from Los Grifos, indicates an antiquity of more than 12, years Acosta Ochoa Is it possible that the points of Los Grifos have been gathered at the rock shelter of Santa Marta, to be reused hundreds or thousands of years after their manufacture?
Without a doubt, this question is worth asking: Thus, this legacy brings together testimonies of two great traditions of the continent: In the Central American region, the Clovis culture could be identified in 20 places, and the Fishtail tradition, in Both entities distinguish themselves essentially by their projectile points, although in the case of Clovis, diagnostic features have also been recognized on endscrapers, flakes, and cores.
Of course, through the analysis and interpretation of this corpus, we should not forget the serious limitations imposed by the gaps in our knowledge of the Paleoindian material of Central America, and by the erosion or disappearance of numerous remains, due to natural and human factors. But anyway, we can make some interesting observations, and suggest avenues for future investigations. As we saw it, the locations associated with the Clovis and Fishtail traditions reveal comparable geographic distributions, through the isthmus, in mountainous environments as on coastal plains.
The second tradition, however, seems to be more closely related to the Atlantic slope and coast; this could give credence to the idea, suggested by some authors Pearson and BostromPearson, Faughtof a Paleoindian cultural interaction area on the Caribbean coast of Central America. With regard to the chronological indications provided by the scarce absolute dates available for this study, we notice that apart from the problematic case of Los Grifos, they are not in contradiction with the chronology established in the rest of the continent for the Clovis and Fishtail traditions.
Therefore, in Central America, both traditions seem to have had partially contemporaneous developments, the second one outliving the first one. Remains attributed to both cultural entities coexisted, on the surface, in the Ladyville 1 and Turrialba sites, as well as in the area of Lake Alajuela; and in excavation, in Los Grifos and Los Vampiros.
Nevertheless, in none of these places could a concomitance of the Clovis and Fishtail occupations be established. It is worth mentioning that in South America, more precisely in northern Peru, a meeting of the Fishtail and Paijan traditions has been suggested Dillehay Can we consider that the different types of Paleoindian projectile points correspond to different human groups?
The hypothesis appears probable, in the case of the Fishtail and Paijan types of the Central Andes, which would be related to distinct ways of organization and subsistence, as already stated. In Central America, the situation is more confusing, since the elements allowing the discrimination of the Paleoindian cultural entities are scarce, and their archaeological context is problematical. Clearly though, the sole points provide valuable evidence on the Prehistoric societies.
It has been proved that beyond their practical use, they could assume symbolic and even ritual dimensions CauvinGreen et al. If we admit that in Central America, the objects diagnostic of the Clovis and Fishtail traditions could be in use at the same time, the fact that their coexistence has only been observed in 4 or 5 places could suggest the existence of peoples whose union was not self-evident due to the scarce opportunities the bearers of both traditions would have had to meet, rivalries between the groups, or differences in the ways of life, languages, ideologies, or beliefs.
We could also suggest various kinds of influences; we must be cautious about the nature and significance of these influences: Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. The Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, University of Iowa Press. Revista Nacional de Cultura, 6: Cotter Clovis Revisited: University of Pennsylvania Museum. Bradley, Bruce, Michael B. Andrews Hemmings Clovis Technology. International Monographs in Prehistory. American Antiquity, 43 3: American Antiquity, 45 2: American Antiquity, 28 3: Un sitio Paleoindio en Turrialba.
Universidad de Costa Rica. Gordon Man makes himself. University of Texas Press. Athena Review 3 2: The University of Utah Press.
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The Clovis and Fishtail Traditions in Central America | Sébastien Perrot-Minnot - afrocolombianidad.info
University Presses of Florida. Cuadernos de Trabajo, American Antiquity, 63 3: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 3: Guilaine, Jean and Jean Zammit Aux origines de la guerre. Center for the Study of the First Americans. Haynes, Gary The early settlements of North America: Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas. David An investigation of Clovis caches: The University of New Mexico. Latin American Antiquity, 17 2: Exploring for Clovis Adaptations in Highland Mesoamerica.
A discrete and identifiable cultural stage? Clovis Origins and Adaptations R. Journal of Field Archaeology, 10 1: Maggard, Greg and Tom D. From Foraging to Farming in the Andes: Colonizing Ice Age America. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. American Antiquity, 64 2: Historia General de Guatemala, t. Popenoe de Hatch, ed.