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We have set up a pilot management system that integrates legal regulation, administrative supervision, industry self—regulation, and technological safeguards. Chen, This combined approach closely weds government policy prerogatives with industry—based enforcement, as Chinese companies operating in the online space are subject to a multitude of evolving control requirements and penalties.

While much has been written about Internet censorship and surveillance in China, and important research efforts are ongoing, we summarize here some of the key information control developments and requirements applicable to companies operating in China, such as TOM Online and Sina Corporation, which offer the IM programs analyzed in this study.

Government policies, and the legal and regulatory measures in place to effectuate them, have attempted to tap the economic potential of the Internet while also managing what are viewed as its potentially destabilizing effects in society, preventing threats to government control.

que es exhaustiva yahoo dating

On the other hand, the Internet must be managed through strict rules and regulations in order to deter users from accessing or propagating content deemed inappropriate. As many of the numerous online services and platforms provided to the Chinese public are offered by industry rather than government entities, the Chinese government has promulgated a complex framework of laws and regulations with which industry must comply, effectively extending the reach of the government at various levels into the companies themselves.

que es exhaustiva yahoo dating

Moreover, authorities have moved to enforce real name registration on microblogs and other online services. In practice, all Internet companies are held responsible for the content they host and expected to establish entire departments devoted to surveillance and censorship of their users MacKinnon, ; While authorities provide overall direction on the scope of that activity, companies are tasked with practical enforcement, including maintaining keyword lists Reporters Without Borders, ; MacKinnon, Search engines similarly maintain lists of keywords and Web addresses that cannot appear in result pages Human Rights Watch, The documents contained guidelines on identifying information for censorship and lists of filtered keywords and URLs China Digital Times, Among those terms and subjects identified for censorship were words concerning collective assembly and social mobilization e.

Securities and Exchange Commission, which offer some insight into the labyrinthine information control requirements that Internet companies in China must navigate.

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For example, Sina Corp. Companies must obtain appropriate licensing from government authorities to conduct operations. See also Jiang Numerous government authorities are involved in regulation of the Internet industry. Internet service providers are required to delete any content on its website that may lead to disclosure of state secrets.

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Failure to do so on a timely and adequate basis may subject us to liabilities and penalties. Thus, companies have significant incentive to patrol for sensitive topics on the basis of these requirements in order to avoid potential liabilities.

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Companies that maintain news Web sites or Internet portals must rely on continued cooperation with state—owned media for certain types of content. We may lose users if the PRC government chooses to restrict or prevent state—owned media from cooperating with us, in which case our revenues will be impacted negatively. At the same time, the CPC maintains a heavy presence within Internet companies, organizing its members and establishing Party Committees within these entities Kennedy, ; Kessler, Sina, Baidu, social network Kaixin, and at least six other Internet companies are reported to have formed internal Party organizations Kessler, With such extensive involvement of industry, however, and the evolving nature of the online environment, application of information controls — how censorship and surveillance within the industry are actually implemented — appears to vary according to the circumstances of the platform or company at issue, activities of users, and the fluctuating policy priorities of local and central authorities.

For example, Sina noted it had encountered certain difficulties in fully complying with microblog real—name registration requirements: Continuously changing legal requirements and vaguely defined content categories, necessitating individual company interpretation, may result in additional variations in censorship practices across platforms and providers.

Previous literature reveals inconsistencies between companies in what content is targeted for censorship and mechanisms used to implement that censorship. Recent studies on Chinese social media also show how censorship of Chinese microblogs dynamically adapts to sensitive topics and point to possible focuses for censorship.

MacKinnon examined how 15 different Chinese blog service providers filter and delete posts and found that the extent of censorship implemented and the methods used varied significantly.

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Based on these findings, MacKinnon concluded that censorship of user generated content in China is highly decentralized, and companies and private individuals responsible for maintaining the services can have significant impact on how censorship is implemented. Villeneuve b tested keyword censorship in search engines for the Chinese market developed by Google, Microsoft, Yahoo! He found little overlap in the keywords censored by the four search engines, suggesting there was no comprehensive system such as an official list in place for implementing censorship and that search engine providers have flexibility in carrying out government censorship requirements.

Studies on Chinese social media are beginning to emerge, but have been limited relative to research on social media generally due to the difficulty of computationally processing Chinese text. Examples of current work include the WeiboScope platform http: Other studies have focused on the dynamic nature of Weibo filtering. As with other domestic services, Chinese IM programs are subject to censorship regulations, and anecdotal reports from the media and Chinese blogger community have raised suspicions of surveillance on IM programs and the use of chat logs in arrests and prosecutions Kennedy, ; Global Voices Advocacy, Leaks of keyword lists and past work has confirmed censorship and surveillance capabilities for some Chinese IM programs.

This work was followed by Villeneuve awho confirmed surveillance features in the TOM—Skype client by obtaining chat logs uploaded by TOM—Skype through an insecure publicly accessible Web server hosted in China, and performing cluster and content analysis on the user and content filter logs. This work builds on previous research by analyzing a dataset of TOM—Skype and Sina UC keyword lists over a period of 21 months, translating keywords into English, categorizing the keywords into finer—grained content categories, and correlating list updates with current events.

In past cases when complete censorship lists were obtained, such as the QQ chat and blog keywords in the appendices of the Human Rights Watch report, the lists were taken from one snapshot in time; however, our dataset includes all changes to the lists per day for over one and a half years. The following sections detail our methodology and results.

These are, however, not the most popular IM programs in use in China.

que es exhaustiva yahoo dating

In comparison, according to reports, TOM—Skype has 2. Sina UC currently holds only 1. Using packet sniffing, we discovered from which URL each client downloads its keyword lists and, for each client that sends surveillance messages, to which URL it uploads those messages.

que es exhaustiva yahoo dating

To decrypt the keyword lists and surveillance messages, we used a variety of reverse engineering techniques as appropriate for each client, which we describe below. Sina UC censorship Sina UC has no built—in measures to resist reverse engineering, and reverse engineering the cryptography used for its keyword lists was the easiest of all the clients in this study.

Aconquistador in a sense, Humboldt dominated the country and rendered it to modern science.

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By decod- ing its geological strata, climbing its peaks, registering its flora and launa, admiring its archeological riches and ethnological diversity, he launched a new conquest 01 Mexico. Here we may remember that he was able to examine the lallout 01 Jorullo's eruption dated September 29th,which he climbed and analyzed 1, meters over sea level.

On the other hand, the geological pro lile between the Atlantic and Pacilic Ocean led him to appreciate an overall vision 01 Mexican volcanoes, which he situated in parallel 19' north, direaion LUZ F. Humboldt's works were a starting point lor lurther research and new views on the Americas.

In lact, its intellectual inlluence on scientists and travelers 01 the nineteenth century prompted a Ilow 01 systematized mineralogical and geological studies.

Lenk, on the lirst hall 01 the century. He also engages on work organization, technology and prolits 01 mines "renowned by its wealth, seniority and proximity to Mexico City", specilically Catorce, Guanajuato, Real del Monte and Pachuca. Beside his intrinsic value, Humboldt's works appealed to scientists, explorers and loreign businessmen, who traveled to Mexico and contributed to geological sciences and other disciplines.

Particularly, during the yearshundreds 01 European travelers connected to mining enterprises tried to establish themselves in Mexico. First, English investors arrived, and they were lollowed by German and North American mining entrepreneurs. Economic incentives, such as mining concessions, land, and even tax exemption, were offered. In response, hundreds 01 immigrants arrived, encountering welcoming policies and markets. Humboldt's description 01 Mexican richness combined with metropolitan thriving expansionism to meet local needs.

In October 8th,an official decree established the conditions lor loreign investors to acquire mines in propriety. A member 01 a wealthy lamily and heir 01 long-standing mining ventures, was also an intellectual and exceptional politician, who promoted economical progress by encouraging industrial growth.

Commenting on the high lunds the companies invested, he declared they supported Mexican's mdependence, and delined mining as the base 01 the economy.

In his own words: Mines are the true wealth 01 this Nation and evel 1thing said in the contrary by speculative economists has been successlully reluted by experience Garcia, In the meantime, a small British company excelled, not lor the amount 01 its wealth, but lor his Prussian director, Joseph Burkart. Furthermore, Burkart wrote numerous scientilic documents on Mexican geology and mines, and a valuable travelogue, entitled "Residence and Travels in Mexico in the Years We will discuss this book on the next section.

With a lesser impact in the economy -the German Company 01 Eberfeld had a value 01sterling pounds- the Prussian business stood out lor its gilted ollicials, who added to Burkart's contributions to geo- logical sciences Ward, Among the most valuable scientists we lind Friedrich von Gerolt, Charles von Berghes and Carl Christian Sartorius, who published numerous studies during their residence in Mexico and maintained contact with local scientists alter their departurethe three men arrived inand departed at different dates; except lor Sartorius, who lounded a larming business in Orizaba and only lelt lor briel peri- ods during his liletime.

Others, like Karl Koppe, wrote books lollowing Humboldt's model Koppe, And some disliked Mexico so much, that they criticized Humboldt's "exceedingly positive" data. On the other hand, scientilic works were validated as contributions to Geology, subjed that we will discuss on the next sed ion.

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Territorial prospecting was vital, since studies about Mexico were scarce and travelers only counted on Humboldt's work, supplemented by dissimilar works such as George Lyon's "Travelogue around the Republic 01 Mexico in ", John Taylor's "Seledions Irom the works 01 the Baron de Humboldt, relating to the climate, inhabitants, productions and mines 01 Mexico"and Henry G.

Ward's "Mexico in ", among others. As a result, geological and mineralogical studies were planned in arder to evaluate economical potential 01 mines and locate promising ventures. The second most popular book among investors was probably Ward's work, whose goal was to provide inlormation regarding British mining enterprises, updating and completing Humboldt's data.